TY - JOUR
T1 - Using Polygenic Scores in Social Science Research: Unraveling Childlessness
JF - Frontiers in Sociology
Y1 - 2019
A1 - Verweij, Renske M.
A1 - Melinda C Mills
A1 - Stulp, Gert
A1 - Ilja M Nolte
A1 - Nicola Barban
A1 - Felix C Tropf
A1 - Carrell, Douglas T.
A1 - Aston, Kenneth I.
A1 - Krina T Zondervan
A1 - Rahmioglu, Nilufer
A1 - Dalgaard, Marlene
A1 - Skaarup, Carina
A1 - Hayes, M. Geoffrey
A1 - Dunaif, Andrea
A1 - Guo, Guang
A1 - Snieder, Harold
KW - childlessness
KW - polygenic score
KW - social science
AB - Biological, genetic, and socio-demographic factors are all important in explaining reproductive behavior, yet these factors are typically studied in isolation. In this study, we explore an innovative sociogenomic approach, which entails including key socio-demographic (marriage, education, occupation, religion, cohort) and genetic factors related to both behavioral [age at first birth (AFB), number of children ever born (NEB)] and biological fecundity-related outcomes (endometriosis, age at menopause and menarche, polycystic ovary syndrome, azoospermia, testicular dysgenesis syndrome) to explain childlessness. We examine the association of all sets of factors with childlessness as well as the interplay between them. We derive polygenic scores (PGS) from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and apply these in the Health and Retirement Study (N = 10,686) and Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 8,284). Both socio-demographic and genetic factors were associated with childlessness. Whilst socio-demographic factors explain 19–46% in childlessness, the current PGS explains <1% of the variance, and only PGSs from large GWASs are related to childlessness. Our findings also indicate that genetic and socio-demographic factors are not independent, with PGSs for AFB and NEB related to education and age at marriage. The explained variance by polygenic scores on childlessness is limited since it is largely a behavioral trait, with genetic explanations expected to increase somewhat in the future with better-powered GWASs. As genotyping of individuals in social science surveys becomes more prevalent, the method described in this study can be applied to other outcomes.
VL - 4
UR - https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fsoc.2019.00074
ER -
TY - JOUR
T1 - Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior.
JF - Nat Genet
Y1 - 2016
A1 - Nicola Barban
A1 - Jansen, Rick
A1 - de Vlaming, Ronald
A1 - Vaez, Ahmad
A1 - Mandemakers, Jornt J
A1 - Felix C Tropf
A1 - Shen, Xia
A1 - James F Wilson
A1 - Chasman, Daniel I
A1 - Ilja M Nolte
A1 - Tragante, Vinicius
A1 - van der Laan, Sander W
A1 - Perry, John R B
A1 - Kong, Augustine
A1 - Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S
A1 - Albrecht, Eva
A1 - Laura M Yerges-Armstrong
A1 - Atzmon, Gil
A1 - Auro, Kirsi
A1 - Kristin L. Ayers
A1 - Bakshi, Andrew
A1 - Ben-Avraham, Danny
A1 - Klaus Berger
A1 - Bergman, Aviv
A1 - Bertram, Lars
A1 - Bielak, Lawrence F
A1 - Bjornsdottir, Gyda
A1 - Bonder, Marc Jan
A1 - Broer, Linda
A1 - Bui, Minh
A1 - Barbieri, Caterina
A1 - Cavadino, Alana
A1 - Chavarro, Jorge E
A1 - Turman, Constance
A1 - Maria Pina Concas
A1 - Cordell, Heather J
A1 - Gail Davies
A1 - Eibich, Peter
A1 - Eriksson, Nicholas
A1 - Tõnu Esko
A1 - Eriksson, Joel
A1 - Falahi, Fahimeh
A1 - Felix, Janine F
A1 - Mark Alan Fontana
A1 - Lude L Franke
A1 - Gandin, Ilaria
A1 - Gaskins, Audrey J
A1 - Gieger, Christian
A1 - Gunderson, Erica P
A1 - Guo, Xiuqing
A1 - Caroline Hayward
A1 - He, Chunyan
A1 - Edith Hofer
A1 - Huang, Hongyan
A1 - Joshi, Peter K
A1 - Kanoni, Stavroula
A1 - Karlsson, Robert
A1 - Kiechl, Stefan
A1 - Kifley, Annette
A1 - Kluttig, Alexander
A1 - Kraft, Peter
A1 - Lagou, Vasiliki
A1 - Lecoeur, Cecile
A1 - Lahti, Jari
A1 - Li-Gao, Ruifang
A1 - Penelope A Lind
A1 - Tian Liu
A1 - Makalic, Enes
A1 - Mamasoula, Crysovalanto
A1 - Lindsay K Matteson
A1 - Mbarek, Hamdi
A1 - McArdle, Patrick F
A1 - McMahon, George
A1 - Meddens, S Fleur W
A1 - Mihailov, Evelin
A1 - Michael B Miller
A1 - Missmer, Stacey A
A1 - Monnereau, Claire
A1 - van der Most, Peter J
A1 - Myhre, Ronny
A1 - Michael A Nalls
A1 - Nutile, Teresa
A1 - Ioanna Panagiota Kalafati
A1 - Porcu, Eleonora
A1 - Prokopenko, Inga
A1 - Rajan, Kumar B
A1 - Rich-Edwards, Janet
A1 - Cornelius A Rietveld
A1 - Robino, Antonietta
A1 - Rose, Lynda M
A1 - Rueedi, Rico
A1 - Ryan, Kathleen A
A1 - Saba, Yasaman
A1 - Schmidt, Daniel
A1 - Jennifer A Smith
A1 - Stolk, Lisette
A1 - Streeten, Elizabeth
A1 - Tönjes, Anke
A1 - Thorleifsson, Gudmar
A1 - Ulivi, Sheila
A1 - Wedenoja, Juho
A1 - Jürgen Wellmann
A1 - Willeit, Peter
A1 - Yao, Jie
A1 - Yengo, Loic
A1 - Jing Hua Zhao
A1 - Wei Zhao
A1 - Zhernakova, Daria V
A1 - Amin, Najaf
A1 - Andrews, Howard
A1 - Balkau, Beverley
A1 - Barzilai, Nir
A1 - Bergmann, Sven
A1 - Biino, Ginevra
A1 - Bisgaard, Hans
A1 - Bønnelykke, Klaus
A1 - Dorret I Boomsma
A1 - Buring, Julie E
A1 - Campbell, Harry
A1 - Cappellani, Stefania
A1 - Ciullo, Marina
A1 - Cox, Simon R
A1 - Francesco Cucca
A1 - Toniolo, Daniela
A1 - Davey-Smith, George
A1 - Ian J Deary
A1 - George Dedoussis
A1 - Deloukas, Panos
A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn
A1 - Eco J. C. de Geus
A1 - Johan G. Eriksson
A1 - Jessica D Faul
A1 - Cinzia Felicita Sala
A1 - Froguel, Philippe
A1 - Paolo P. Gasparini
A1 - Giorgia G Girotto
A1 - Grabe, Hans-Jörgen
A1 - Greiser, Karin Halina
A1 - Groenen, Patrick J F
A1 - de Haan, Hugoline G
A1 - Haerting, Johannes
A1 - Tamara B Harris
A1 - Heath, Andrew C
A1 - Heikkilä, Kauko
A1 - Hofman, Albert
A1 - Homuth, Georg
A1 - Holliday, Elizabeth G
A1 - John L Hopper
A1 - Hyppönen, Elina
A1 - Jacobsson, Bo
A1 - Vincent Jaddoe
A1 - Johannesson, Magnus
A1 - Jugessur, Astanand
A1 - Kähönen, Mika
A1 - Kajantie, Eero
A1 - Sharon L R Kardia
A1 - Keavney, Bernard
A1 - Kolcic, Ivana
A1 - Koponen, Päivikki
A1 - Kovacs, Peter
A1 - Kronenberg, Florian
A1 - Kutalik, Zoltán
A1 - La Bianca, Martina
A1 - Lachance, Genevieve
A1 - Iacono, William G
A1 - Lai, Sandra
A1 - Lehtimäki, Terho
A1 - David C Liewald
A1 - Lindgren, Cecilia M
A1 - Yongmei Liu
A1 - Luben, Robert
A1 - Lucht, Michael
A1 - Luoto, Riitta
A1 - Magnus, Per
A1 - Patrik K E Magnusson
A1 - Nicholas G Martin
A1 - McGue, Matt
A1 - McQuillan, Ruth
A1 - Sarah E Medland
A1 - Meisinger, Christa
A1 - Mellström, Dan
A1 - Andres Metspalu
A1 - Traglia, Michela
A1 - Lili Milani
A1 - Mitchell, Paul
A1 - Grant W Montgomery
A1 - Dennis O Mook-Kanamori
A1 - de Mutsert, Renée
A1 - Nohr, Ellen A
A1 - Ohlsson, Claes
A1 - Olsen, Jørn
A1 - Ong, Ken K
A1 - Paternoster, Lavinia
A1 - Pattie, Alison
A1 - Brenda W J H Penninx
A1 - Markus Perola
A1 - Peyser, Patricia A
A1 - Pirastu, Mario
A1 - Polasek, Ozren
A1 - Power, Chris
A1 - Kaprio, Jaakko
A1 - Raffel, Leslie J
A1 - Katri Räikkönen
A1 - Olli T Raitakari
A1 - Ridker, Paul M
A1 - Ring, Susan M
A1 - Roll, Kathryn
A1 - Rudan, Igor
A1 - Ruggiero, Daniela
A1 - Rujescu, Dan
A1 - Veikko Salomaa
A1 - Schlessinger, David
A1 - Schmidt, Helena
A1 - Schmidt, Reinhold
A1 - Schupf, Nicole
A1 - Johannes Smit
A1 - Sorice, Rossella
A1 - Tim D Spector
A1 - John M Starr
A1 - Stöckl, Doris
A1 - Strauch, Konstantin
A1 - Stumvoll, Michael
A1 - Swertz, Morris A
A1 - Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur
A1 - A. Roy Thurik
A1 - Nicholas J Timpson
A1 - Tung, Joyce Y
A1 - André G Uitterlinden
A1 - Vaccargiu, Simona
A1 - Viikari, Jorma
A1 - Vitart, Veronique
A1 - Völzke, Henry
A1 - Vollenweider, Peter
A1 - Vuckovic, Dragana
A1 - Waage, Johannes
A1 - Wagner, Gert G
A1 - Wang, Jie Jin
A1 - Wareham, Nicholas J
A1 - David R Weir
A1 - Gonneke Willemsen
A1 - Willeit, Johann
A1 - Alan F Wright
A1 - Krina T Zondervan
A1 - Stefansson, Kari
A1 - Krueger, Robert F
A1 - Lee, James J
A1 - Daniel J. Benjamin
A1 - Cesarini, David
A1 - Philipp D Koellinger
A1 - den Hoed, Marcel
A1 - Snieder, Harold
A1 - Melinda C Mills
AB - The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior-age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)-has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlying mechanisms of AFB and NEB are poorly understood. We report a large genome-wide association study of both sexes including 251,151 individuals for AFB and 343,072 individuals for NEB. We identified 12 independent loci that are significantly associated with AFB and/or NEB in a SNP-based genome-wide association study and 4 additional loci associated in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to have a role, either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression, in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing understanding of these complex traits.

VL - 48
IS - 12
U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798627?dopt=Abstract
ER -