Decline in muscle strength with aging is an important predictor of health trajectory in the elderly. Several factors, including genetics, are proposed contributors to variability in muscle strength. To identify genetic contributors to muscle strength, a meta-analysis of genomewide association studies of handgrip was conducted. Grip strength was measured using a handheld dynamometer in 27 581 individuals of European descent over 65 years of age from 14 cohort studies. Genomewide association analysis was conducted on ~2.7 million imputed and genotyped variants (SNPs). Replication of the most significant findings was conducted using data from 6393 individuals from three cohorts. GWAS of lower body strength was also characterized in a subset of cohorts. Two genomewide significant (P-value< 5 × 10(-8) ) and 39 suggestive (P-value< 5 × 10(-5) ) associations were observed from meta-analysis of the discovery cohorts. After meta-analysis with replication cohorts, genomewide significant association was observed for rs752045 on chromosome 8 (β = 0.47, SE = 0.08, P-value = 5.20 × 10(-10) ). This SNP is mapped to an intergenic region and is located within an accessible chromatin region (DNase hypersensitivity site) in skeletal muscle myotubes differentiated from the human skeletal muscle myoblasts cell line. This locus alters a binding motif of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-β (CEBPB) that is implicated in muscle repair mechanisms. GWAS of lower body strength did not yield significant results. A common genetic variant in a chromosomal region that regulates myotube differentiation and muscle repair may contribute to variability in grip strength in the elderly. Further studies are needed to uncover the mechanisms that link this genetic variant with muscle strength.

VL - 15 IS - 5 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27325353?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations. 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Allison A1 - Amin, Najaf A1 - Asselbergs, Folkert W A1 - Bakker, Stephan J L A1 - Barr, R Graham A1 - Baumeister, Sebastian E A1 - Daniel J. 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A. Sørensen A1 - Rotimi, Charles N A1 - Donna K. Arnett A1 - Oldehinkel, Albertine J A1 - Sharon L R Kardia A1 - Balkau, Beverley A1 - Gambaro, Giovanni A1 - Morris, Andrew P A1 - Johan G. Eriksson A1 - Margaret J Wright A1 - Nicholas G Martin A1 - Hunt, Steven C A1 - John M Starr A1 - Ian J Deary A1 - Griffiths, Lyn R A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - Nicola N Pirastu A1 - Kaprio, Jaakko A1 - Wareham, Nicholas J A1 - Pérusse, Louis A1 - Wilson, James G A1 - Giorgia G Girotto A1 - Caulfield, Mark J A1 - Olli T Raitakari A1 - Dorret I Boomsma A1 - Gieger, Christian A1 - van der Harst, Pim A1 - Hicks, Andrew A A1 - Kraft, Peter A1 - Sinisalo, Juha A1 - Knekt, Paul A1 - Johannesson, Magnus A1 - Patrik K E Magnusson A1 - Hamsten, Anders A1 - Schmidt, Reinhold A1 - Ingrid B Borecki A1 - Vartiainen, Erkki A1 - Becker, Diane M A1 - Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan A1 - Mohlke, Karen L A1 - Boehnke, Michael A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Sanghera, Dharambir K A1 - Teumer, Alexander A1 - Zeggini, Eleftheria A1 - Andres Metspalu A1 - Paolo P. Gasparini A1 - Ulivi, Sheila A1 - Ober, Carole A1 - Toniolo, Daniela A1 - Rudan, Igor A1 - David J Porteous A1 - Ciullo, Marina A1 - Tim D Spector A1 - Caroline Hayward A1 - Dupuis, Josée A1 - Ruth J F Loos A1 - Alan F Wright A1 - Chandak, Giriraj R A1 - Vollenweider, Peter A1 - Alan R Shuldiner A1 - Ridker, Paul M A1 - Rotter, Jerome I A1 - Sattar, Naveed A1 - Gyllensten, Ulf A1 - North, Kari E A1 - Pirastu, Mario A1 - Psaty, Bruce M A1 - David R Weir A1 - Laakso, Markku A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - Takahashi, Atsushi A1 - Chambers, John C A1 - Kooner, Jaspal S A1 - Strachan, David P A1 - Campbell, Harry A1 - Joel N Hirschhron A1 - Markus Perola A1 - Polasek, Ozren A1 - James F Wilson KW - Biological Evolution KW - Blood pressure KW - Body Height KW - Cholesterol KW - Cognitive Ability KW - Cohort Studies KW - Education KW - Female KW - Forced Expiratory Volume KW - Genome KW - Homozygote KW - Humans KW - Lung Volume Measurements KW - Male KW - Phenotype AB -Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less well understood. Genomic data now allow us to investigate the effects of homozygosity on traits of public health importance by observing contiguous homozygous segments (runs of homozygosity), which are inferred to be homozygous along their complete length. Given the low levels of genome-wide homozygosity prevalent in most human populations, information is required on very large numbers of people to provide sufficient power. Here we use runs of homozygosity to study 16 health-related quantitative traits in 354,224 individuals from 102 cohorts, and find statistically significant associations between summed runs of homozygosity and four complex traits: height, forced expiratory lung volume in one second, general cognitive ability and educational attainment (P < 1 × 10(-300), 2.1 × 10(-6), 2.5 × 10(-10) and 1.8 × 10(-10), respectively). In each case, increased homozygosity was associated with decreased trait value, equivalent to the offspring of first cousins being 1.2 cm shorter and having 10 months' less education. Similar effect sizes were found across four continental groups and populations with different degrees of genome-wide homozygosity, providing evidence that homozygosity, rather than confounding, directly contributes to phenotypic variance. Contrary to earlier reports in substantially smaller samples, no evidence was seen of an influence of genome-wide homozygosity on blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or ten other cardio-metabolic traits. Since directional dominance is predicted for traits under directional evolutionary selection, this study provides evidence that increased stature and cognitive function have been positively selected in human evolution, whereas many important risk factors for late-onset complex diseases may not have been.

VL - 523 IS - 7561 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26131930?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - GWAS of longevity in CHARGE consortium confirms APOE and FOXO3 candidacy. JF - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci Y1 - 2015 A1 - Broer, Linda A1 - Aron S Buchman A1 - Deelen, Joris A1 - Daniel S Evans A1 - Jessica D Faul A1 - Kathryn L Lunetta A1 - Sebastiani, Paola A1 - Jennifer A Smith A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Toshiko Tanaka A1 - Lei Yu A1 - Alice M. Arnold A1 - Aspelund, Thor A1 - Emelia J Benjamin A1 - Philip L. De Jager A1 - Guðny Eiríksdóttir A1 - Melissa E Garcia A1 - Hofman, Albert A1 - Kaplan, Robert C A1 - Sharon L R Kardia A1 - Douglas P Kiel A1 - Ben A Oostra A1 - Orwoll, Eric S A1 - Parimi, Neeta A1 - Psaty, Bruce M A1 - Fernando Rivadeneira A1 - Rotter, Jerome I A1 - Seshadri, Sudha A1 - Andrew B Singleton A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Bandinelli, Stefania A1 - David A. Bennett A1 - Luigi Ferrucci A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Karasik, David A1 - Lenore J Launer A1 - Thomas T Perls A1 - Eline P Slagboom A1 - Tranah, Gregory J A1 - David R Weir A1 - Anne B Newman A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Joanne M Murabito KW - Aged KW - Aged, 80 and over KW - Apolipoproteins E KW - Cell Adhesion Molecules KW - Cohort Studies KW - Female KW - Forkhead Box Protein O3 KW - Forkhead Transcription Factors KW - Genome-Wide Association Study KW - Humans KW - Longevity KW - Male KW - Middle Aged KW - Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide KW - Receptors, Kainic Acid AB -**BACKGROUND: **The genetic contribution to longevity in humans has been estimated to range from 15% to 25%. Only two genes, APOE and FOXO3, have shown association with longevity in multiple independent studies.

**METHODS: **We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies including 6,036 longevity cases, age ≥90 years, and 3,757 controls that died between ages 55 and 80 years. We additionally attempted to replicate earlier identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with longevity.

**RESULTS: **In our meta-analysis, we found suggestive evidence for the association of SNPs near CADM2 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81; p value = 9.66 × 10(-7)) and GRIK2 (odds ratio = 1.24; p value = 5.09 × 10(-8)) with longevity. When attempting to replicate findings earlier identified in genome-wide association studies, only the APOE locus consistently replicated. In an additional look-up of the candidate gene FOXO3, we found that an earlier identified variant shows a highly significant association with longevity when including published data with our meta-analysis (odds ratio = 1.17; p value = 1.85×10(-10)).

**CONCLUSIONS: **We did not identify new genome-wide significant associations with longevity and did not replicate earlier findings except for APOE and FOXO3. Our inability to find new associations with survival to ages ≥90 years because longevity represents multiple complex traits with heterogeneous genetic underpinnings, or alternatively, that longevity may be regulated by rare variants that are not captured by standard genome-wide genotyping and imputation of common variants.

**BACKGROUND: **Detection of "any cognitive impairment" is mandated as part of the Medicare annual wellness visit, but screening all patients may result in excessive false positives.

**METHODS: **We developed and validated a brief Dementia Screening Indicator using data from four large, ongoing cohort studies (the Cardiovascular Health Study [CHS]; the Framingham Heart Study [FHS]; the Health and Retirement Study [HRS]; the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging [SALSA]) to help clinicians identify a subgroup of high-risk patients to target for cognitive screening.

**RESULTS: **The final Dementia Screening Indicator included age (1 point/year; ages, 65-79 years), less than 12 years of education (9 points), stroke (6 points), diabetes mellitus (3 points), body mass index less than 18.5 kg/m(2) (8 points), requiring assistance with money or medications (10 points), and depressive symptoms (6 points). Accuracy was good across the cohorts (Harrell's C statistic: CHS, 0.68; FHS, 0.77; HRS, 0.76; SALSA, 0.78).

**CONCLUSIONS: **The Dementia Screening Indicator is a simple tool that may be useful in primary care settings to identify high-risk patients to target for cognitive screening.