Decline in muscle strength with aging is an important predictor of health trajectory in the elderly. Several factors, including genetics, are proposed contributors to variability in muscle strength. To identify genetic contributors to muscle strength, a meta-analysis of genomewide association studies of handgrip was conducted. Grip strength was measured using a handheld dynamometer in 27 581 individuals of European descent over 65 years of age from 14 cohort studies. Genomewide association analysis was conducted on ~2.7 million imputed and genotyped variants (SNPs). Replication of the most significant findings was conducted using data from 6393 individuals from three cohorts. GWAS of lower body strength was also characterized in a subset of cohorts. Two genomewide significant (P-value< 5 × 10(-8) ) and 39 suggestive (P-value< 5 × 10(-5) ) associations were observed from meta-analysis of the discovery cohorts. After meta-analysis with replication cohorts, genomewide significant association was observed for rs752045 on chromosome 8 (β = 0.47, SE = 0.08, P-value = 5.20 × 10(-10) ). This SNP is mapped to an intergenic region and is located within an accessible chromatin region (DNase hypersensitivity site) in skeletal muscle myotubes differentiated from the human skeletal muscle myoblasts cell line. This locus alters a binding motif of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-β (CEBPB) that is implicated in muscle repair mechanisms. GWAS of lower body strength did not yield significant results. A common genetic variant in a chromosomal region that regulates myotube differentiation and muscle repair may contribute to variability in grip strength in the elderly. Further studies are needed to uncover the mechanisms that link this genetic variant with muscle strength.

VL - 15 IS - 5 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27325353?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations. JF - Nature Y1 - 2015 A1 - Joshi, Peter K A1 - Tõnu Esko A1 - Mattsson, Hannele A1 - Eklund, Niina A1 - Gandin, Ilaria A1 - Nutile, Teresa A1 - Jackson, Anne U A1 - Schurmann, Claudia A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Zhang, Weihua A1 - Okada, Yukinori A1 - Stančáková, Alena A1 - Jessica D Faul A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Bartz, Traci M A1 - Maria Pina Concas A1 - Franceschini, Nora A1 - Enroth, Stefan A1 - Vitart, Veronique A1 - Trompet, Stella A1 - Guo, Xiuqing A1 - Chasman, Daniel I A1 - O'Connel, Jeffrey R A1 - Corre, Tanguy A1 - Nongmaithem, Suraj S A1 - Chen, Yuning A1 - Mangino, Massimo A1 - Ruggiero, Daniela A1 - Traglia, Michela A1 - Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni A1 - Kacprowski, Tim A1 - Bjonnes, Andrew A1 - van der Spek, Ashley A1 - Wu, Ying A1 - Giri, Anil K A1 - Yanek, Lisa R A1 - Wang, Lihua A1 - Edith Hofer A1 - Cornelius A Rietveld A1 - McLeod, Olga A1 - Marilyn C Cornelis A1 - Pattaro, Cristian A1 - Verweij, Niek A1 - Baumbach, Clemens A1 - Abdel Abdellaoui A1 - Warren, Helen R A1 - Vuckovic, Dragana A1 - Mei, Hao A1 - Bouchard, Claude A1 - Perry, John R B A1 - Cappellani, Stefania A1 - Saira S Mirza A1 - Benton, Miles C A1 - Broeckel, Ulrich A1 - Sarah E Medland A1 - Penelope A Lind A1 - Malerba, Giovanni A1 - Alexander W Drong A1 - Yengo, Loic A1 - Bielak, Lawrence F A1 - Zhi, Degui A1 - van der Most, Peter J A1 - Shriner, Daniel A1 - Mägi, Reedik A1 - Hemani, Gibran A1 - Karaderi, Tugce A1 - Wang, Zhaoming A1 - Tian Liu A1 - Demuth, Ilja A1 - Jing Hua Zhao A1 - Meng, Weihua A1 - Lataniotis, Lazaros A1 - van der Laan, Sander W A1 - Bradfield, Jonathan P A1 - Andrew R Wood A1 - Bonnefond, Amelie A1 - Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S A1 - Hall, Leanne M A1 - Salvi, Erika A1 - Yazar, Seyhan A1 - Carstensen, Lisbeth A1 - de Haan, Hugoline G A1 - Abney, Mark A1 - Afzal, Uzma A1 - Matthew A. Allison A1 - Amin, Najaf A1 - Asselbergs, Folkert W A1 - Bakker, Stephan J L A1 - Barr, R Graham A1 - Baumeister, Sebastian E A1 - Daniel J. Benjamin A1 - Bergmann, Sven A1 - Boerwinkle, Eric A1 - Erwin P Bottinger A1 - Campbell, Archie A1 - Chakravarti, Aravinda A1 - Chan, Yingleong A1 - Chanock, Stephen J A1 - Chen, Constance A1 - Yii-Der I Chen A1 - Collins, Francis S A1 - Connell, John A1 - Correa, Adolfo A1 - Cupples, L Adrienne A1 - Gail Davies A1 - Dörr, Marcus A1 - Georg B Ehret A1 - Ellis, Stephen B A1 - Feenstra, Bjarke A1 - Feitosa, Mary F A1 - Ford, Ian A1 - Fox, Caroline S A1 - Timothy M Frayling A1 - Friedrich, Nele A1 - Geller, Frank A1 - Scotland, Generation A1 - Gillham-Nasenya, Irina A1 - Gottesman, Omri A1 - Graff, Misa A1 - Grodstein, Francine A1 - Gu, Charles A1 - Haley, Chris A1 - Hammond, Christopher J A1 - Sarah E Harris A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Nicholas D Hastie A1 - Heard-Costa, Nancy L A1 - Heikkilä, Kauko A1 - Hocking, Lynne J A1 - Homuth, Georg A1 - Jouke-Jan Hottenga A1 - Huang, Jinyan A1 - Huffman, Jennifer E A1 - Hysi, Pirro G A1 - Mohammed Arfan Ikram A1 - Ingelsson, Erik A1 - Joensuu, Anni A1 - Johansson, Åsa A1 - Jousilahti, Pekka A1 - Jukema, J Wouter A1 - Kähönen, Mika A1 - Kamatani, Yoichiro A1 - Kanoni, Stavroula A1 - Kerr, Shona M A1 - Khan, Nazir M A1 - Philipp D Koellinger A1 - Koistinen, Heikki A A1 - Kooner, Manraj K A1 - Kubo, Michiaki A1 - Kuusisto, Johanna A1 - Lahti, Jari A1 - Lenore J Launer A1 - Lea, Rodney A A1 - Lehne, Benjamin A1 - Lehtimäki, Terho A1 - David C Liewald A1 - Lars Lind A1 - Loh, Marie A1 - Lokki, Marja-Liisa A1 - London, Stephanie J A1 - Loomis, Stephanie J A1 - Loukola, Anu A1 - Lu, Yingchang A1 - Lumley, Thomas A1 - Lundqvist, Annamari A1 - Männistö, Satu A1 - Marques-Vidal, Pedro A1 - Masciullo, Corrado A1 - Matchan, Angela A1 - Mathias, Rasika A A1 - Matsuda, Koichi A1 - Meigs, James B A1 - Meisinger, Christa A1 - Meitinger, Thomas A1 - Menni, Cristina A1 - Mentch, Frank D A1 - Mihailov, Evelin A1 - Lili Milani A1 - Montasser, May E A1 - Grant W Montgomery A1 - Alanna C Morrison A1 - Myers, Richard H A1 - Nadukuru, Rajiv A1 - Navarro, Pau A1 - Nelis, Mari A1 - Nieminen, Markku S A1 - Ilja M Nolte A1 - O'Connor, George T A1 - Ogunniyi, Adesola A1 - Padmanabhan, Sandosh A1 - Walter R Palmas A1 - Pankow, James S A1 - Patarcic, Inga A1 - Pavani, Francesca A1 - Peyser, Patricia A A1 - Pietilainen, Kirsi A1 - Poulter, Neil A1 - Prokopenko, Inga A1 - Ralhan, Sarju A1 - Redmond, Paul A1 - Rich, Stephen S A1 - Rissanen, Harri A1 - Robino, Antonietta A1 - Rose, Lynda M A1 - Rose, Richard A1 - Cinzia Felicita Sala A1 - Salako, Babatunde A1 - Veikko Salomaa A1 - Sarin, Antti-Pekka A1 - Saxena, Richa A1 - Schmidt, Helena A1 - Scott, Laura J A1 - Scott, William R A1 - Sennblad, Bengt A1 - Seshadri, Sudha A1 - Sever, Peter A1 - Shrestha, Smeeta A1 - Smith, Blair H A1 - Jennifer A Smith A1 - Soranzo, Nicole A1 - Sotoodehnia, Nona A1 - Southam, Lorraine A1 - Stanton, Alice V A1 - Stathopoulou, Maria G A1 - Strauch, Konstantin A1 - Strawbridge, Rona J A1 - Suderman, Matthew J A1 - Tandon, Nikhil A1 - Tang, Sian-Tsun A1 - Kent D Taylor A1 - Bamidele O Tayo A1 - Töglhofer, Anna Maria A1 - Tomaszewski, Maciej A1 - Tšernikova, Natalia A1 - Tuomilehto, Jaakko A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Vaidya, Dhananjay A1 - van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid A1 - van Setten, Jessica A1 - Vasankari, Tuula A1 - Vedantam, Sailaja A1 - Vlachopoulou, Efthymia A1 - Vozzi, Diego A1 - Vuoksimaa, Eero A1 - Waldenberger, Melanie A1 - Erin B Ware A1 - Wentworth-Shields, William A1 - Whitfield, John B A1 - Sarah Wild A1 - Gonneke Willemsen A1 - Yajnik, Chittaranjan S A1 - Yao, Jie A1 - Zaza, Gianluigi A1 - Zhu, Xiaofeng A1 - Salem, Rany M A1 - Melbye, Mads A1 - Bisgaard, Hans A1 - Nilesh J Samani A1 - Cusi, Daniele A1 - Mackey, David A A1 - Cooper, Richard S A1 - Froguel, Philippe A1 - Pasterkamp, Gerard A1 - Grant, Struan F A A1 - Hakonarson, Hakon A1 - Luigi Ferrucci A1 - Scott, Robert A A1 - Morris, Andrew D A1 - Palmer, Colin N A A1 - George Dedoussis A1 - Deloukas, Panos A1 - Bertram, Lars A1 - Lindenberger, Ulman A1 - Berndt, Sonja I A1 - Lindgren, Cecilia M A1 - Nicholas J Timpson A1 - Tönjes, Anke A1 - Munroe, Patricia B A1 - Thorkild I. A. Sørensen A1 - Rotimi, Charles N A1 - Donna K. Arnett A1 - Oldehinkel, Albertine J A1 - Sharon L R Kardia A1 - Balkau, Beverley A1 - Gambaro, Giovanni A1 - Morris, Andrew P A1 - Johan G. Eriksson A1 - Margaret J Wright A1 - Nicholas G Martin A1 - Hunt, Steven C A1 - John M Starr A1 - Ian J Deary A1 - Griffiths, Lyn R A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - Nicola N Pirastu A1 - Kaprio, Jaakko A1 - Wareham, Nicholas J A1 - Pérusse, Louis A1 - Wilson, James G A1 - Giorgia G Girotto A1 - Caulfield, Mark J A1 - Olli T Raitakari A1 - Dorret I Boomsma A1 - Gieger, Christian A1 - van der Harst, Pim A1 - Hicks, Andrew A A1 - Kraft, Peter A1 - Sinisalo, Juha A1 - Knekt, Paul A1 - Johannesson, Magnus A1 - Patrik K E Magnusson A1 - Hamsten, Anders A1 - Schmidt, Reinhold A1 - Ingrid B Borecki A1 - Vartiainen, Erkki A1 - Becker, Diane M A1 - Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan A1 - Mohlke, Karen L A1 - Boehnke, Michael A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Sanghera, Dharambir K A1 - Teumer, Alexander A1 - Zeggini, Eleftheria A1 - Andres Metspalu A1 - Paolo P. Gasparini A1 - Ulivi, Sheila A1 - Ober, Carole A1 - Toniolo, Daniela A1 - Rudan, Igor A1 - David J Porteous A1 - Ciullo, Marina A1 - Tim D Spector A1 - Caroline Hayward A1 - Dupuis, Josée A1 - Ruth J F Loos A1 - Alan F Wright A1 - Chandak, Giriraj R A1 - Vollenweider, Peter A1 - Alan R Shuldiner A1 - Ridker, Paul M A1 - Rotter, Jerome I A1 - Sattar, Naveed A1 - Gyllensten, Ulf A1 - North, Kari E A1 - Pirastu, Mario A1 - Psaty, Bruce M A1 - David R Weir A1 - Laakso, Markku A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - Takahashi, Atsushi A1 - Chambers, John C A1 - Kooner, Jaspal S A1 - Strachan, David P A1 - Campbell, Harry A1 - Joel N Hirschhron A1 - Markus Perola A1 - Polasek, Ozren A1 - James F Wilson KW - Biological Evolution KW - Blood pressure KW - Body Height KW - Cholesterol KW - Cognitive Ability KW - Cohort Studies KW - Education KW - Female KW - Forced Expiratory Volume KW - Genome KW - Homozygote KW - Humans KW - Lung Volume Measurements KW - Male KW - Phenotype AB -Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less well understood. Genomic data now allow us to investigate the effects of homozygosity on traits of public health importance by observing contiguous homozygous segments (runs of homozygosity), which are inferred to be homozygous along their complete length. Given the low levels of genome-wide homozygosity prevalent in most human populations, information is required on very large numbers of people to provide sufficient power. Here we use runs of homozygosity to study 16 health-related quantitative traits in 354,224 individuals from 102 cohorts, and find statistically significant associations between summed runs of homozygosity and four complex traits: height, forced expiratory lung volume in one second, general cognitive ability and educational attainment (P < 1 × 10(-300), 2.1 × 10(-6), 2.5 × 10(-10) and 1.8 × 10(-10), respectively). In each case, increased homozygosity was associated with decreased trait value, equivalent to the offspring of first cousins being 1.2 cm shorter and having 10 months' less education. Similar effect sizes were found across four continental groups and populations with different degrees of genome-wide homozygosity, providing evidence that homozygosity, rather than confounding, directly contributes to phenotypic variance. Contrary to earlier reports in substantially smaller samples, no evidence was seen of an influence of genome-wide homozygosity on blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or ten other cardio-metabolic traits. Since directional dominance is predicted for traits under directional evolutionary selection, this study provides evidence that increased stature and cognitive function have been positively selected in human evolution, whereas many important risk factors for late-onset complex diseases may not have been.

VL - 523 IS - 7561 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26131930?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - GWAS of longevity in CHARGE consortium confirms APOE and FOXO3 candidacy. JF - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci Y1 - 2015 A1 - Broer, Linda A1 - Aron S Buchman A1 - Deelen, Joris A1 - Daniel S Evans A1 - Jessica D Faul A1 - Kathryn L Lunetta A1 - Sebastiani, Paola A1 - Jennifer A Smith A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Toshiko Tanaka A1 - Lei Yu A1 - Alice M. Arnold A1 - Aspelund, Thor A1 - Emelia J Benjamin A1 - Philip L. De Jager A1 - Guðny Eiríksdóttir A1 - Melissa E Garcia A1 - Hofman, Albert A1 - Kaplan, Robert C A1 - Sharon L R Kardia A1 - Douglas P Kiel A1 - Ben A Oostra A1 - Orwoll, Eric S A1 - Parimi, Neeta A1 - Psaty, Bruce M A1 - Fernando Rivadeneira A1 - Rotter, Jerome I A1 - Seshadri, Sudha A1 - Andrew B Singleton A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Bandinelli, Stefania A1 - David A. Bennett A1 - Luigi Ferrucci A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Karasik, David A1 - Lenore J Launer A1 - Thomas T Perls A1 - Eline P Slagboom A1 - Tranah, Gregory J A1 - David R Weir A1 - Anne B Newman A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Joanne M Murabito KW - Aged KW - Aged, 80 and over KW - Apolipoproteins E KW - Cell Adhesion Molecules KW - Cohort Studies KW - Female KW - Forkhead Box Protein O3 KW - Forkhead Transcription Factors KW - Genome-Wide Association Study KW - Humans KW - Longevity KW - Male KW - Middle Aged KW - Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide KW - Receptors, Kainic Acid AB -**BACKGROUND: **The genetic contribution to longevity in humans has been estimated to range from 15% to 25%. Only two genes, APOE and FOXO3, have shown association with longevity in multiple independent studies.

**METHODS: **We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies including 6,036 longevity cases, age ≥90 years, and 3,757 controls that died between ages 55 and 80 years. We additionally attempted to replicate earlier identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with longevity.

**RESULTS: **In our meta-analysis, we found suggestive evidence for the association of SNPs near CADM2 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81; p value = 9.66 × 10(-7)) and GRIK2 (odds ratio = 1.24; p value = 5.09 × 10(-8)) with longevity. When attempting to replicate findings earlier identified in genome-wide association studies, only the APOE locus consistently replicated. In an additional look-up of the candidate gene FOXO3, we found that an earlier identified variant shows a highly significant association with longevity when including published data with our meta-analysis (odds ratio = 1.17; p value = 1.85×10(-10)).

**CONCLUSIONS: **We did not identify new genome-wide significant associations with longevity and did not replicate earlier findings except for APOE and FOXO3. Our inability to find new associations with survival to ages ≥90 years because longevity represents multiple complex traits with heterogeneous genetic underpinnings, or alternatively, that longevity may be regulated by rare variants that are not captured by standard genome-wide genotyping and imputation of common variants.