Human longevity is heritable, but genome-wide association (GWA) studies have had limited success. Here, we perform two meta-analyses of GWA studies of a rigorous longevity phenotype definition including 11,262/3484 cases surviving at or beyond the age corresponding to the 90th/99th survival percentile, respectively, and 25,483 controls whose age at death or at last contact was at or below the age corresponding to the 60th survival percentile. Consistent with previous reports, rs429358 (apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4) is associated with lower odds of surviving to the 90th and 99th percentile age, while rs7412 (ApoE ε2) shows the opposite. Moreover, rs7676745, located near GPR78, associates with lower odds of surviving to the 90th percentile age. Gene-level association analysis reveals a role for tissue-specific expression of multiple genes in longevity. Finally, genetic correlation of the longevity GWA results with that of several disease-related phenotypes points to a shared genetic architecture between health and longevity.

VL - 10 UR - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31413261 IS - 1 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31413261?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - The complex genetics of gait speed: genome-wide meta-analysis approach. JF - Aging (Albany NY) Y1 - 2017 A1 - Ben-Avraham, Dan A1 - Karasik, David A1 - Joe Verghese A1 - Kathryn L Lunetta A1 - John D Eicher A1 - Vered, Rotem A1 - Deelen, Joris A1 - Alice M. Arnold A1 - Aron S Buchman A1 - Toshiko Tanaka A1 - Jessica D Faul A1 - Nethander, Maria A1 - Myriam Fornage A1 - Hieab H. Adams A1 - Amy M Matteini A1 - Michele L Callisaya A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Lei Yu A1 - Philip L. De Jager A1 - Denis A Evans A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - Hofman, Albert A1 - Pattie, Alison A1 - Corley, Janie A1 - Lenore J Launer A1 - Davis S Knopman A1 - Parimi, Neeta A1 - Stephen T Turner A1 - Bandinelli, Stefania A1 - Beekman, Marian A1 - Gutman, Danielle A1 - Sharvit, Lital A1 - Simon P Mooijaart A1 - David C Liewald A1 - Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat A1 - Ohlsson, Claes A1 - Moed, Matthijs A1 - Vincent J Verlinden A1 - Mellström, Dan A1 - Jos N van der Geest A1 - Karlsson, Magnus A1 - Dena G Hernandez A1 - McWhirter, Rebekah A1 - Yongmei Liu A1 - Thomson, Russell A1 - Tranah, Gregory J A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - David R Weir A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - John M Starr A1 - Mohammed Arfan Ikram A1 - David A Bennett A1 - Steven R Cummings A1 - Ian J Deary A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Sharon L R Kardia A1 - Thomas H Mosley A1 - Velandai K Srikanth A1 - Beverly G Windham A1 - Anne B Newman A1 - Jeremy D Walston A1 - Gail Davies A1 - Daniel S Evans A1 - Eline P Slagboom A1 - Luigi Ferrucci A1 - Douglas P Kiel A1 - Joanne M Murabito A1 - Atzmon, Gil KW - Genetics KW - GWAS AB - Emerging evidence suggests that the basis for variation in late-life mobility is attributable, in part, to genetic factors, which may become increasingly important with age. Our objective was to systematically assess the contribution of genetic variation to gait speed in older individuals. We conducted a meta-analysis of gait speed GWASs in 31,478 older adults from 17 cohorts of the CHARGE consortium, and validated our results in 2,588 older adults from 4 independent studies. We followed our initial discoveries with network and eQTL analysis of candidate signals in tissues. The meta-analysis resulted in a list of 536 suggestive genome wide significant SNPs in or near 69 genes. Further interrogation with Pathway Analysis placed gait speed as a polygenic complex trait in five major networks. Subsequent eQTL analysis revealed several SNPs significantly associated with the expression of PRSS16, WDSUB1 and PTPRT, which in addition to the meta-analysis and pathway suggested that genetic effects on gait speed may occur through synaptic function and neuronal development pathways. No genome-wide significant signals for gait speed were identified from this moderately large sample of older adults, suggesting that more refined physical function phenotypes will be needed to identify the genetic basis of gait speed in aging. VL - 9 IS - 1 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28077804?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - RPRT T1 - Evaluating Strategies for Reducing Field Costs in a Longitudinal Study Y1 - 2016 A1 - David R Weir A1 - Mary Beth Ofstedal PB - Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan CY - Ann Arbor, MI ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses. JF - Nat Genet Y1 - 2016 A1 - Okbay, Aysu A1 - Baselmans, Bart M L A1 - De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel A1 - Turley, Patrick A1 - Nivard, Michel G A1 - Mark Alan Fontana A1 - Meddens, S Fleur W A1 - Richard Karlsson Linnér A1 - Cornelius A Rietveld A1 - Derringer, Jaime A1 - Gratten, Jacob A1 - Lee, James J A1 - Liu, Jimmy Z A1 - de Vlaming, Ronald A1 - Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S A1 - Buchwald, Jadwiga A1 - Cavadino, Alana A1 - Frazier-Wood, Alexis C A1 - Furlotte, Nicholas A A1 - Garfield, Victoria A1 - Geisel, Marie Henrike A1 - Gonzalez, Juan R A1 - Haitjema, Saskia A1 - Karlsson, Robert A1 - van der Laan, Sander W A1 - Ladwig, Karl-Heinz A1 - J. Lahti A1 - Sven J van der Lee A1 - Penelope A Lind A1 - Tian Liu A1 - Lindsay K Matteson A1 - Mihailov, Evelin A1 - Michael B Miller A1 - Minica, Camelia C A1 - Ilja M Nolte A1 - Dennis O Mook-Kanamori A1 - van der Most, Peter J A1 - Christopher J Oldmeadow A1 - Qian, Yong A1 - Olli T Raitakari A1 - Rawal, Rajesh A1 - Realo, Anu A1 - Rueedi, Rico A1 - Schmidt, Börge A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Stergiakouli, Evie A1 - Toshiko Tanaka A1 - Kent D Taylor A1 - Wedenoja, Juho A1 - Jürgen Wellmann A1 - Westra, Harm-Jan A1 - Willems, Sara M A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Amin, Najaf A1 - Bakshi, Andrew A1 - Patricia A. Boyle A1 - Cherney, Samantha A1 - Cox, Simon R A1 - Gail Davies A1 - Davis, Oliver S P A1 - Ding, Jun A1 - Nese Direk A1 - Eibich, Peter A1 - Emeny, Rebecca T A1 - Fatemifar, Ghazaleh A1 - Jessica D Faul A1 - Luigi Ferrucci A1 - Andreas J Forstner A1 - Gieger, Christian A1 - Gupta, Richa A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Harris, Juliette M A1 - Holliday, Elizabeth G A1 - Jouke-Jan Hottenga A1 - Philip L. De Jager A1 - Marika A Kaakinen A1 - Kajantie, Eero A1 - Karhunen, Ville A1 - Kolcic, Ivana A1 - Kumari, Meena A1 - Lenore J Launer A1 - Lude L Franke A1 - Li-Gao, Ruifang A1 - Koini, Marisa A1 - Loukola, Anu A1 - Marques-Vidal, Pedro A1 - Grant W Montgomery A1 - Mosing, Miriam A A1 - Paternoster, Lavinia A1 - Pattie, Alison A1 - Petrovic, Katja E A1 - Pulkki-Raback, Laura A1 - Quaye, Lydia A1 - Katri Räikkönen A1 - Rudan, Igor A1 - Rodney J Scott A1 - Jennifer A Smith A1 - Angelina R Sutin A1 - Trzaskowski, Maciej A1 - Anna A E Vinkhuyzen A1 - Lei Yu A1 - Zabaneh, Delilah A1 - John R. Attia A1 - David A Bennett A1 - Klaus Berger A1 - Bertram, Lars A1 - Dorret I Boomsma A1 - Snieder, Harold A1 - Chang, Shun-Chiao A1 - Francesco Cucca A1 - Ian J Deary A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Johan G. Eriksson A1 - Bültmann, Ute A1 - Eco J. C. de Geus A1 - Groenen, Patrick J F A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - Hansen, Torben A1 - Catharina A Hartman A1 - Haworth, Claire M A A1 - Caroline Hayward A1 - Heath, Andrew C A1 - Hinds, David A A1 - Hyppönen, Elina A1 - Iacono, William G A1 - Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta A1 - Jöckel, Karl-Heinz A1 - Kaprio, Jaakko A1 - Sharon L R Kardia A1 - Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa A1 - Kraft, Peter A1 - Laura D Kubzansky A1 - Lehtimäki, Terho A1 - Patrik K E Magnusson A1 - Nicholas G Martin A1 - McGue, Matt A1 - Andres Metspalu A1 - Melinda C Mills A1 - de Mutsert, Renée A1 - Oldehinkel, Albertine J A1 - Pasterkamp, Gerard A1 - Nancy L Pedersen A1 - Plomin, Robert A1 - Polasek, Ozren A1 - Power, Christine A1 - Rich, Stephen S A1 - Rosendaal, Frits R A1 - Hester M. den Ruijter A1 - Schlessinger, David A1 - Schmidt, Helena A1 - Svento, Rauli A1 - Schmidt, Reinhold A1 - Alizadeh, Behrooz Z A1 - Thorkild I. A. Sørensen A1 - Tim D Spector A1 - Steptoe, Andrew A1 - Antonio Terracciano A1 - A. Roy Thurik A1 - Nicholas J Timpson A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Vollenweider, Peter A1 - Wagner, Gert G A1 - David R Weir A1 - Yang, Jian A1 - Dalton C Conley A1 - Hofman, Albert A1 - Johannesson, Magnus A1 - David I Laibson A1 - Sarah E Medland A1 - Meyer, Michelle N A1 - Pickrell, Joseph K A1 - Tõnu Esko A1 - Krueger, Robert F A1 - Jonathan P. Beauchamp A1 - Philipp D Koellinger A1 - Daniel J. Benjamin A1 - Bartels, Meike A1 - Cesarini, David KW - Anxiety Disorders KW - Bayes Theorem KW - depression KW - Genome-Wide Association Study KW - Humans KW - Neuroticism KW - Phenotype KW - Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide AB -Very few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted genome-wide association studies of three phenotypes: subjective well-being (n = 298,420), depressive symptoms (n = 161,460), and neuroticism (n = 170,911). We identify 3 variants associated with subjective well-being, 2 variants associated with depressive symptoms, and 11 variants associated with neuroticism, including 2 inversion polymorphisms. The two loci associated with depressive symptoms replicate in an independent depression sample. Joint analyses that exploit the high genetic correlations between the phenotypes (|ρ^| ≈ 0.8) strengthen the overall credibility of the findings and allow us to identify additional variants. Across our phenotypes, loci regulating expression in central nervous system and adrenal or pancreas tissues are strongly enriched for association.

VL - 48 IS - 6 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27089181?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior. JF - Nat Genet Y1 - 2016 A1 - Nicola Barban A1 - Jansen, Rick A1 - de Vlaming, Ronald A1 - Vaez, Ahmad A1 - Mandemakers, Jornt J A1 - Felix C Tropf A1 - Shen, Xia A1 - James F Wilson A1 - Chasman, Daniel I A1 - Ilja M Nolte A1 - Tragante, Vinicius A1 - van der Laan, Sander W A1 - Perry, John R B A1 - Kong, Augustine A1 - Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S A1 - Albrecht, Eva A1 - Laura M Yerges-Armstrong A1 - Atzmon, Gil A1 - Auro, Kirsi A1 - Kristin L. Ayers A1 - Bakshi, Andrew A1 - Ben-Avraham, Danny A1 - Klaus Berger A1 - Bergman, Aviv A1 - Bertram, Lars A1 - Bielak, Lawrence F A1 - Bjornsdottir, Gyda A1 - Bonder, Marc Jan A1 - Broer, Linda A1 - Bui, Minh A1 - Barbieri, Caterina A1 - Cavadino, Alana A1 - Chavarro, Jorge E A1 - Turman, Constance A1 - Maria Pina Concas A1 - Cordell, Heather J A1 - Gail Davies A1 - Eibich, Peter A1 - Eriksson, Nicholas A1 - Tõnu Esko A1 - Eriksson, Joel A1 - Falahi, Fahimeh A1 - Felix, Janine F A1 - Mark Alan Fontana A1 - Lude L Franke A1 - Gandin, Ilaria A1 - Gaskins, Audrey J A1 - Gieger, Christian A1 - Gunderson, Erica P A1 - Guo, Xiuqing A1 - Caroline Hayward A1 - He, Chunyan A1 - Edith Hofer A1 - Huang, Hongyan A1 - Joshi, Peter K A1 - Kanoni, Stavroula A1 - Karlsson, Robert A1 - Kiechl, Stefan A1 - Kifley, Annette A1 - Kluttig, Alexander A1 - Kraft, Peter A1 - Lagou, Vasiliki A1 - Lecoeur, Cecile A1 - Lahti, Jari A1 - Li-Gao, Ruifang A1 - Penelope A Lind A1 - Tian Liu A1 - Makalic, Enes A1 - Mamasoula, Crysovalanto A1 - Lindsay K Matteson A1 - Mbarek, Hamdi A1 - McArdle, Patrick F A1 - McMahon, George A1 - Meddens, S Fleur W A1 - Mihailov, Evelin A1 - Michael B Miller A1 - Missmer, Stacey A A1 - Monnereau, Claire A1 - van der Most, Peter J A1 - Myhre, Ronny A1 - Michael A Nalls A1 - Nutile, Teresa A1 - Ioanna Panagiota Kalafati A1 - Porcu, Eleonora A1 - Prokopenko, Inga A1 - Rajan, Kumar B A1 - Rich-Edwards, Janet A1 - Cornelius A Rietveld A1 - Robino, Antonietta A1 - Rose, Lynda M A1 - Rueedi, Rico A1 - Ryan, Kathleen A A1 - Saba, Yasaman A1 - Schmidt, Daniel A1 - Jennifer A Smith A1 - Stolk, Lisette A1 - Streeten, Elizabeth A1 - Tönjes, Anke A1 - Thorleifsson, Gudmar A1 - Ulivi, Sheila A1 - Wedenoja, Juho A1 - Jürgen Wellmann A1 - Willeit, Peter A1 - Yao, Jie A1 - Yengo, Loic A1 - Jing Hua Zhao A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Zhernakova, Daria V A1 - Amin, Najaf A1 - Andrews, Howard A1 - Balkau, Beverley A1 - Barzilai, Nir A1 - Bergmann, Sven A1 - Biino, Ginevra A1 - Bisgaard, Hans A1 - Bønnelykke, Klaus A1 - Dorret I Boomsma A1 - Buring, Julie E A1 - Campbell, Harry A1 - Cappellani, Stefania A1 - Ciullo, Marina A1 - Cox, Simon R A1 - Francesco Cucca A1 - Toniolo, Daniela A1 - Davey-Smith, George A1 - Ian J Deary A1 - George Dedoussis A1 - Deloukas, Panos A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Eco J. C. de Geus A1 - Johan G. Eriksson A1 - Jessica D Faul A1 - Cinzia Felicita Sala A1 - Froguel, Philippe A1 - Paolo P. Gasparini A1 - Giorgia G Girotto A1 - Grabe, Hans-Jörgen A1 - Greiser, Karin Halina A1 - Groenen, Patrick J F A1 - de Haan, Hugoline G A1 - Haerting, Johannes A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Heath, Andrew C A1 - Heikkilä, Kauko A1 - Hofman, Albert A1 - Homuth, Georg A1 - Holliday, Elizabeth G A1 - John L Hopper A1 - Hyppönen, Elina A1 - Jacobsson, Bo A1 - Vincent Jaddoe A1 - Johannesson, Magnus A1 - Jugessur, Astanand A1 - Kähönen, Mika A1 - Kajantie, Eero A1 - Sharon L R Kardia A1 - Keavney, Bernard A1 - Kolcic, Ivana A1 - Koponen, Päivikki A1 - Kovacs, Peter A1 - Kronenberg, Florian A1 - Kutalik, Zoltán A1 - La Bianca, Martina A1 - Lachance, Genevieve A1 - Iacono, William G A1 - Lai, Sandra A1 - Lehtimäki, Terho A1 - David C Liewald A1 - Lindgren, Cecilia M A1 - Yongmei Liu A1 - Luben, Robert A1 - Lucht, Michael A1 - Luoto, Riitta A1 - Magnus, Per A1 - Patrik K E Magnusson A1 - Nicholas G Martin A1 - McGue, Matt A1 - McQuillan, Ruth A1 - Sarah E Medland A1 - Meisinger, Christa A1 - Mellström, Dan A1 - Andres Metspalu A1 - Traglia, Michela A1 - Lili Milani A1 - Mitchell, Paul A1 - Grant W Montgomery A1 - Dennis O Mook-Kanamori A1 - de Mutsert, Renée A1 - Nohr, Ellen A A1 - Ohlsson, Claes A1 - Olsen, Jørn A1 - Ong, Ken K A1 - Paternoster, Lavinia A1 - Pattie, Alison A1 - Brenda W J H Penninx A1 - Markus Perola A1 - Peyser, Patricia A A1 - Pirastu, Mario A1 - Polasek, Ozren A1 - Power, Chris A1 - Kaprio, Jaakko A1 - Raffel, Leslie J A1 - Katri Räikkönen A1 - Olli T Raitakari A1 - Ridker, Paul M A1 - Ring, Susan M A1 - Roll, Kathryn A1 - Rudan, Igor A1 - Ruggiero, Daniela A1 - Rujescu, Dan A1 - Veikko Salomaa A1 - Schlessinger, David A1 - Schmidt, Helena A1 - Schmidt, Reinhold A1 - Schupf, Nicole A1 - Johannes Smit A1 - Sorice, Rossella A1 - Tim D Spector A1 - John M Starr A1 - Stöckl, Doris A1 - Strauch, Konstantin A1 - Stumvoll, Michael A1 - Swertz, Morris A A1 - Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A1 - A. Roy Thurik A1 - Nicholas J Timpson A1 - Tung, Joyce Y A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Vaccargiu, Simona A1 - Viikari, Jorma A1 - Vitart, Veronique A1 - Völzke, Henry A1 - Vollenweider, Peter A1 - Vuckovic, Dragana A1 - Waage, Johannes A1 - Wagner, Gert G A1 - Wang, Jie Jin A1 - Wareham, Nicholas J A1 - David R Weir A1 - Gonneke Willemsen A1 - Willeit, Johann A1 - Alan F Wright A1 - Krina T Zondervan A1 - Stefansson, Kari A1 - Krueger, Robert F A1 - Lee, James J A1 - Daniel J. Benjamin A1 - Cesarini, David A1 - Philipp D Koellinger A1 - den Hoed, Marcel A1 - Snieder, Harold A1 - Melinda C Mills AB -The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior-age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)-has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlying mechanisms of AFB and NEB are poorly understood. We report a large genome-wide association study of both sexes including 251,151 individuals for AFB and 343,072 individuals for NEB. We identified 12 independent loci that are significantly associated with AFB and/or NEB in a SNP-based genome-wide association study and 4 additional loci associated in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to have a role, either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression, in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing understanding of these complex traits.

VL - 48 IS - 12 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798627?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment. JF - Nature Y1 - 2016 A1 - Okbay, Aysu A1 - Jonathan P. Beauchamp A1 - Mark Alan Fontana A1 - Lee, James J A1 - Pers, Tune H A1 - Cornelius A Rietveld A1 - Turley, Patrick A1 - Chen, Guo-Bo A1 - Emilsson, Valur A1 - Meddens, S Fleur W A1 - Oskarsson, Sven A1 - Pickrell, Joseph K A1 - Thom, Kevin A1 - Pascal N Timshel A1 - de Vlaming, Ronald A1 - Abdel Abdellaoui A1 - Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S A1 - Bacelis, Jonas A1 - Baumbach, Clemens A1 - Bjornsdottir, Gyda A1 - Brandsma, Johannes H A1 - Maria Pina Concas A1 - Derringer, Jaime A1 - Furlotte, Nicholas A A1 - Galesloot, Tessel E A1 - Giorgia G Girotto A1 - Gupta, Richa A1 - Hall, Leanne M A1 - Sarah E Harris A1 - Edith Hofer A1 - Horikoshi, Momoko A1 - Huffman, Jennifer E A1 - Kaasik, Kadri A1 - Ioanna Panagiota Kalafati A1 - Karlsson, Robert A1 - Kong, Augustine A1 - Lahti, Jari A1 - Sven J van der Lee A1 - Christiaan de Leeuw A1 - Penelope A Lind A1 - Lindgren, Karl-Oskar A1 - Tian Liu A1 - Mangino, Massimo A1 - Marten, Jonathan A1 - Mihailov, Evelin A1 - Michael B Miller A1 - van der Most, Peter J A1 - Christopher J Oldmeadow A1 - Payton, Antony A1 - Pervjakova, Natalia A1 - Wouter J Peyrot A1 - Qian, Yong A1 - Olli T Raitakari A1 - Rueedi, Rico A1 - Salvi, Erika A1 - Schmidt, Börge A1 - Schraut, Katharina E A1 - Jianxin Shi A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Poot, Raymond A A1 - St Pourcain, Beate A1 - Teumer, Alexander A1 - Thorleifsson, Gudmar A1 - Verweij, Niek A1 - Vuckovic, Dragana A1 - Jürgen Wellmann A1 - Westra, Harm-Jan A1 - Yang, Jingyun A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Zhihong Zhu A1 - Alizadeh, Behrooz Z A1 - Amin, Najaf A1 - Bakshi, Andrew A1 - Baumeister, Sebastian E A1 - Biino, Ginevra A1 - Bønnelykke, Klaus A1 - Patricia A. Boyle A1 - Campbell, Harry A1 - Cappuccio, Francesco P A1 - Gail Davies A1 - De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel A1 - Deloukas, Panos A1 - Demuth, Ilja A1 - Ding, Jun A1 - Eibich, Peter A1 - Eisele, Lewin A1 - Eklund, Niina A1 - Jessica D Faul A1 - Feitosa, Mary F A1 - Andreas J Forstner A1 - Gandin, Ilaria A1 - Gunnarsson, Bjarni A1 - Halldórsson, Bjarni V A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Heath, Andrew C A1 - Hocking, Lynne J A1 - Holliday, Elizabeth G A1 - Homuth, Georg A1 - Horan, Michael A A1 - Jouke-Jan Hottenga A1 - Philip L. De Jager A1 - Joshi, Peter K A1 - Jugessur, Astanand A1 - Marika A Kaakinen A1 - Kähönen, Mika A1 - Kanoni, Stavroula A1 - Keltigangas-Järvinen, Liisa A1 - Lambertus A Kiemeney A1 - Kolcic, Ivana A1 - Koskinen, Seppo A1 - Kraja, Aldi T A1 - Kroh, Martin A1 - Kutalik, Zoltán A1 - Latvala, Antti A1 - Lenore J Launer A1 - Lebreton, Maël P A1 - Douglas F Levinson A1 - Paul Lichtenstein A1 - Lichtner, Peter A1 - David C Liewald A1 - Loukola, Anu A1 - Pamela A F Madden A1 - Mägi, Reedik A1 - Mäki-Opas, Tomi A1 - Riccardo E Marioni A1 - Marques-Vidal, Pedro A1 - Meddens, Gerardus A A1 - McMahon, George A1 - Meisinger, Christa A1 - Meitinger, Thomas A1 - Milaneschi, Yusplitri A1 - Lili Milani A1 - Grant W Montgomery A1 - Myhre, Ronny A1 - Nelson, Christopher P A1 - Nyholt, Dale R A1 - William E R Ollier A1 - Aarno Palotie A1 - Paternoster, Lavinia A1 - Nancy L Pedersen A1 - Petrovic, Katja E A1 - David J Porteous A1 - Katri Räikkönen A1 - Ring, Susan M A1 - Robino, Antonietta A1 - Rostapshova, Olga A1 - Rudan, Igor A1 - Rustichini, Aldo A1 - Veikko Salomaa A1 - Sanders, Alan R A1 - Sarin, Antti-Pekka A1 - Schmidt, Helena A1 - Rodney J Scott A1 - Smith, Blair H A1 - Jennifer A Smith A1 - Staessen, Jan A A1 - Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth A1 - Strauch, Konstantin A1 - Antonio Terracciano A1 - Tobin, Martin D A1 - Ulivi, Sheila A1 - Vaccargiu, Simona A1 - Quaye, Lydia A1 - van Rooij, Frank J A A1 - Venturini, Cristina A1 - Anna A E Vinkhuyzen A1 - Völker, Uwe A1 - Völzke, Henry A1 - Vonk, Judith M A1 - Vozzi, Diego A1 - Waage, Johannes A1 - Erin B Ware A1 - Gonneke Willemsen A1 - John R. Attia A1 - David A Bennett A1 - Klaus Berger A1 - Bertram, Lars A1 - Bisgaard, Hans A1 - Dorret I Boomsma A1 - Ingrid B Borecki A1 - Bültmann, Ute A1 - Chabris, Christopher F A1 - Francesco Cucca A1 - Cusi, Daniele A1 - Ian J Deary A1 - George Dedoussis A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Johan G. Eriksson A1 - Franke, Barbara A1 - Lude L Franke A1 - Paolo P. Gasparini A1 - Gejman, Pablo V A1 - Gieger, Christian A1 - Grabe, Hans-Jörgen A1 - Gratten, Jacob A1 - Groenen, Patrick J F A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - van der Harst, Pim A1 - Caroline Hayward A1 - Hinds, David A A1 - Hoffmann, Wolfgang A1 - Hyppönen, Elina A1 - Iacono, William G A1 - Jacobsson, Bo A1 - Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta A1 - Jöckel, Karl-Heinz A1 - Kaprio, Jaakko A1 - Sharon L R Kardia A1 - Lehtimäki, Terho A1 - Lehrer, Steven F A1 - Patrik K E Magnusson A1 - Nicholas G Martin A1 - McGue, Matt A1 - Andres Metspalu A1 - Pendleton, Neil A1 - Brenda W J H Penninx A1 - Markus Perola A1 - Nicola N Pirastu A1 - Pirastu, Mario A1 - Polasek, Ozren A1 - Posthuma, Danielle A1 - Power, Christine A1 - Province, Michael A A1 - Nilesh J Samani A1 - Schlessinger, David A1 - Schmidt, Reinhold A1 - Thorkild I. A. Sørensen A1 - Tim D Spector A1 - Stefansson, Kari A1 - Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A1 - A. Roy Thurik A1 - Nicholas J Timpson A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - Tung, Joyce Y A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Vitart, Veronique A1 - Vollenweider, Peter A1 - David R Weir A1 - James F Wilson A1 - Alan F Wright A1 - Dalton C Conley A1 - Krueger, Robert F A1 - George Davey Smith A1 - Hofman, Albert A1 - David I Laibson A1 - Sarah E Medland A1 - Meyer, Michelle N A1 - Yang, Jian A1 - Johannesson, Magnus A1 - Peter M Visscher A1 - Tõnu Esko A1 - Philipp D Koellinger A1 - Cesarini, David A1 - Daniel J. Benjamin KW - Alzheimer's disease KW - Bipolar Disorder KW - Cognitive Ability KW - Education KW - Fetus KW - Genome-Wide Association Study KW - Humans KW - Molecular Sequence Annotation KW - Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide KW - Schizophrenia KW - United Kingdom AB -Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.

VL - 533 IS - 7604 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225129?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Meta-analysis identifies common and rare variants influencing blood pressure and overlapping with metabolic trait loci. JF - Nat Genet Y1 - 2016 A1 - Liu, Chunyu A1 - Kraja, Aldi T A1 - Jennifer A Smith A1 - Brody, Jennifer A A1 - Franceschini, Nora A1 - Joshua C. Bis A1 - Kenneth Rice A1 - Alanna C Morrison A1 - Lu, Yingchang A1 - Weiss, Stefan A1 - Guo, Xiuqing A1 - Walter R Palmas A1 - Martin, Lisa W A1 - Yii-Der I Chen A1 - Surendran, Praveen A1 - Drenos, Fotios A1 - Cook, James P A1 - Auer, Paul L A1 - Chu, Audrey Y A1 - Giri, Ayush A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Jakobsdottir, Johanna A1 - Lin, Li-An A1 - Stafford, Jeanette M A1 - Amin, Najaf A1 - Mei, Hao A1 - Yao, Jie A1 - Voorman, Arend A1 - Larson, Martin G A1 - Grove, Megan L A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Hwang, Shih-Jen A1 - Chen, Han A1 - Huan, Tianxiao A1 - Kosova, Gulum A1 - Stitziel, Nathan O A1 - Kathiresan, Sekar A1 - Nilesh J Samani A1 - Schunkert, Heribert A1 - Deloukas, Panos A1 - Li, Man A1 - Fuchsberger, Christian A1 - Pattaro, Cristian A1 - Gorski, Mathias A1 - Kooperberg, Charles A1 - George J Papanicolaou A1 - Rossouw, Jacques E A1 - Jessica D Faul A1 - Sharon L R Kardia A1 - Bouchard, Claude A1 - Raffel, Leslie J A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Franco, Oscar H A1 - Ramachandran S Vasan A1 - O'Donnell, Christopher J A1 - Kent D Taylor A1 - Liu, Kiang A1 - Erwin P Bottinger A1 - Gottesman, Omri A1 - Daw, E Warwick A1 - Giulianini, Franco A1 - Ganesh, Santhi A1 - Salfati, Elias A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Lenore J Launer A1 - Dörr, Marcus A1 - Felix, Stephan B A1 - Rettig, Rainer A1 - Völzke, Henry A1 - Eric S. Kim A1 - Lee, Wen-Jane A1 - Lee, I-Te A1 - Sheu, Wayne H-H A1 - Tsosie, Krystal S A1 - Digna R Velez Edwards A1 - Yongmei Liu A1 - Correa, Adolfo A1 - David R Weir A1 - Völker, Uwe A1 - Ridker, Paul M A1 - Boerwinkle, Eric A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - Reiner, Alexander P A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Ingrid B Borecki A1 - Edwards, Todd L A1 - Chakravarti, Aravinda A1 - Rotter, Jerome I A1 - Psaty, Bruce M A1 - Ruth J F Loos A1 - Myriam Fornage A1 - Georg B Ehret A1 - Newton-Cheh, Christopher A1 - Levy, Daniel A1 - Chasman, Daniel I AB -Meta-analyses of association results for blood pressure using exome-centric single-variant and gene-based tests identified 31 new loci in a discovery stage among 146,562 individuals, with follow-up and meta-analysis in 180,726 additional individuals (total n = 327,288). These blood pressure-associated loci are enriched for known variants for cardiometabolic traits. Associations were also observed for the aggregation of rare and low-frequency missense variants in three genes, NPR1, DBH, and PTPMT1. In addition, blood pressure associations at 39 previously reported loci were confirmed. The identified variants implicate biological pathways related to cardiometabolic traits, vascular function, and development. Several new variants are inferred to have roles in transcription or as hubs in protein-protein interaction networks. Genetic risk scores constructed from the identified variants were strongly associated with coronary disease and myocardial infarction. This large collection of blood pressure-associated loci suggests new therapeutic strategies for hypertension, emphasizing a link with cardiometabolic risk.

VL - 48 IS - 10 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Somatic, positive and negative domains of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. JF - Psychol Med Y1 - 2016 A1 - Demirkan, A A1 - J. Lahti A1 - Nese Direk A1 - Viktorin, A. A1 - Kathryn L Lunetta A1 - Antonio Terracciano A1 - Michael A Nalls A1 - Toshiko Tanaka A1 - Karin Hek A1 - Myriam Fornage A1 - Jürgen Wellmann A1 - Marilyn C Cornelis A1 - Ollila, H. M. A1 - Lei Yu A1 - Luke C Pilling A1 - Isaacs, A A1 - Aarno Palotie A1 - Wei Vivian Zhuang A1 - Alan B Zonderman A1 - Jessica D Faul A1 - Angelina R Sutin A1 - Osorio Meirelles A1 - Mulas, A A1 - Hofman, A A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Fernando Rivadeneira A1 - Markus Perola A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Veikko Salomaa A1 - Kristine Yaffe A1 - Luik, A I A1 - Yongmei Liu A1 - Ding, J A1 - Paul Lichtenstein A1 - Landén, M A1 - Elisabeth Widen A1 - David R Weir A1 - David J Llewellyn A1 - Murray, A A1 - Sharon L R Kardia A1 - Johan G. Eriksson A1 - Karestan C Koenen A1 - Patrik K E Magnusson A1 - Luigi Ferrucci A1 - Thomas H Mosley A1 - Francesco Cucca A1 - Ben A Oostra A1 - David A Bennett A1 - Paunio, T. A1 - Klaus Berger A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Nancy L Pedersen A1 - Joanne M Murabito A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Katri Räikkönen KW - depression KW - Depressive Disorder, Major KW - Genome-Wide Association Study KW - Humans KW - Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide KW - Receptor, Melatonin, MT1 KW - Somatoform Disorders AB -**BACKGROUND: **Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, however genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for MDD, as well as for related continuous outcomes, have not shown consistent results. Attempts to elucidate the genetic basis of MDD may be hindered by heterogeneity in diagnosis. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale provides a widely used tool for measuring depressive symptoms clustered in four different domains which can be combined together into a total score but also can be analysed as separate symptom domains.

**METHOD: **We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS of the CES-D symptom clusters. We recruited 12 cohorts with the 20- or 10-item CES-D scale (32 528 persons).

**RESULTS: **One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs713224, located near the brain-expressed melatonin receptor (MTNR1A) gene, was associated with the somatic complaints domain of depression symptoms, with borderline genome-wide significance (p discovery = 3.82 × 10-8). The SNP was analysed in an additional five cohorts comprising the replication sample (6813 persons). However, the association was not consistent among the replication sample (p discovery+replication = 1.10 × 10-6) with evidence of heterogeneity.

**CONCLUSIONS: **Despite the effort to harmonize the phenotypes across cohorts and participants, our study is still underpowered to detect consistent association for depression, even by means of symptom classification. On the contrary, the SNP-based heritability and co-heritability estimation results suggest that a very minor part of the variation could be captured by GWAS, explaining the reason of sparse findings.

Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less well understood. Genomic data now allow us to investigate the effects of homozygosity on traits of public health importance by observing contiguous homozygous segments (runs of homozygosity), which are inferred to be homozygous along their complete length. Given the low levels of genome-wide homozygosity prevalent in most human populations, information is required on very large numbers of people to provide sufficient power. Here we use runs of homozygosity to study 16 health-related quantitative traits in 354,224 individuals from 102 cohorts, and find statistically significant associations between summed runs of homozygosity and four complex traits: height, forced expiratory lung volume in one second, general cognitive ability and educational attainment (P < 1 × 10(-300), 2.1 × 10(-6), 2.5 × 10(-10) and 1.8 × 10(-10), respectively). In each case, increased homozygosity was associated with decreased trait value, equivalent to the offspring of first cousins being 1.2 cm shorter and having 10 months' less education. Similar effect sizes were found across four continental groups and populations with different degrees of genome-wide homozygosity, providing evidence that homozygosity, rather than confounding, directly contributes to phenotypic variance. Contrary to earlier reports in substantially smaller samples, no evidence was seen of an influence of genome-wide homozygosity on blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or ten other cardio-metabolic traits. Since directional dominance is predicted for traits under directional evolutionary selection, this study provides evidence that increased stature and cognitive function have been positively selected in human evolution, whereas many important risk factors for late-onset complex diseases may not have been.

VL - 523 IS - 7561 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26131930?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology. JF - Nature Y1 - 2015 A1 - Locke, Adam E A1 - Kahali, Bratati A1 - Berndt, Sonja I A1 - Justice, Anne E A1 - Pers, Tune H A1 - Day, Felix R A1 - Powell, Corey A1 - Vedantam, Sailaja A1 - Buchkovich, Martin L A1 - Yang, Jian A1 - Croteau-Chonka, Damien C A1 - Tõnu Esko A1 - Fall, Tove A1 - Ferreira, Teresa A1 - Gustafsson, Stefan A1 - Kutalik, Zoltán A1 - Luan, Jian'an A1 - Mägi, Reedik A1 - Randall, Joshua C A1 - Winkler, Thomas W A1 - Andrew R Wood A1 - Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie A1 - Jessica D Faul A1 - Jennifer A Smith A1 - Jing Hua Zhao A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Chen, Jin A1 - Rudolf Ferhmann A1 - Hedman, Åsa K A1 - Karjalainen, Juha A1 - Schmidt, Ellen M A1 - Absher, Devin A1 - Amin, Najaf A1 - Anderson, Denise A1 - Beekman, Marian A1 - Bolton, Jennifer L A1 - Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L A1 - Buyske, Steven A1 - Demirkan, Ayse A1 - Deng, Guohong A1 - Georg B Ehret A1 - Feenstra, Bjarke A1 - Feitosa, Mary F A1 - Fischer, Krista A1 - Goel, Anuj A1 - Gong, Jian A1 - Jackson, Anne U A1 - Kanoni, Stavroula A1 - Kleber, Marcus E A1 - Kristiansson, Kati A1 - Lim, Unhee A1 - Lotay, Vaneet A1 - Mangino, Massimo A1 - Irene Mateo Leach A1 - Medina-Gomez, Carolina A1 - Sarah E Medland A1 - Michael A Nalls A1 - Palmer, Cameron D A1 - Pasko, Dorota A1 - Pechlivanis, Sonali A1 - Peters, Marjolein J A1 - Prokopenko, Inga A1 - Shungin, Dmitry A1 - Stančáková, Alena A1 - Strawbridge, Rona J A1 - Yun Ju Sung A1 - Toshiko Tanaka A1 - Teumer, Alexander A1 - Trompet, Stella A1 - van der Laan, Sander W A1 - van Setten, Jessica A1 - Jana V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk A1 - Wang, Zhaoming A1 - Yengo, Loic A1 - Zhang, Weihua A1 - Isaacs, Aaron A1 - Albrecht, Eva A1 - Ärnlöv, Johan A1 - Arscott, Gillian M A1 - Attwood, Antony P A1 - Bandinelli, Stefania A1 - Barrett, Amy A1 - Bas, Isabelita N A1 - Bellis, Claire A1 - Bennett, Amanda J A1 - Berne, Christian A1 - Blagieva, Roza A1 - Blüher, Matthias A1 - Böhringer, Stefan A1 - Bonnycastle, Lori L A1 - Böttcher, Yvonne A1 - Boyd, Heather A A1 - Bruinenberg, Marcel A1 - Caspersen, Ida H A1 - Yii-Der I Chen A1 - Robert Clark A1 - Daw, E Warwick A1 - de Craen, Anton J M A1 - Delgado, Graciela A1 - Dimitriou, Maria A1 - Doney, Alex S F A1 - Eklund, Niina A1 - Estrada, Karol A1 - Eury, Elodie A1 - Folkersen, Lasse A1 - Fraser, Ross M A1 - Melissa E Garcia A1 - Geller, Frank A1 - Giedraitis, Vilmantas A1 - Gigante, Bruna A1 - Alan S Go A1 - Golay, Alain A1 - Goodall, Alison H A1 - Gordon, Scott D A1 - Gorski, Mathias A1 - Grabe, Hans-Jörgen A1 - Grallert, Harald A1 - Grammer, Tanja B A1 - Gräßler, Jürgen A1 - Grönberg, Henrik A1 - Groves, Christopher J A1 - Gusto, Gaëlle A1 - Jeffrey Haessler A1 - Hall, Per A1 - Haller, Toomas A1 - Hallmans, Göran A1 - Catharina A Hartman A1 - Hassinen, Maija A1 - Caroline Hayward A1 - Heard-Costa, Nancy L A1 - Helmer, Quinta A1 - Hengstenberg, Christian A1 - Oddgeir L Holmen A1 - Jouke-Jan Hottenga A1 - James, Alan L A1 - Jeff, Janina M A1 - Johansson, Åsa A1 - Jolley, Jennifer A1 - Juliusdottir, Thorhildur A1 - Kinnunen, Leena A1 - Koenig, Wolfgang A1 - Koskenvuo, Markku A1 - Kratzer, Wolfgang A1 - Laitinen, Jaana A1 - Lamina, Claudia A1 - Leander, Karin A1 - Lee, Nanette R A1 - Lichtner, Peter A1 - Lars Lind A1 - Lindström, Jaana A1 - Ken Sin Lo A1 - Lobbens, Stéphane A1 - Lorbeer, Roberto A1 - Lu, Yingchang A1 - Mach, François A1 - Patrik K E Magnusson A1 - Mahajan, Anubha A1 - McArdle, Wendy L A1 - McLachlan, Stela A1 - Menni, Cristina A1 - Merger, Sigrun A1 - Mihailov, Evelin A1 - Lili Milani A1 - Moayyeri, Alireza A1 - Monda, Keri L A1 - Morken, Mario A A1 - Mulas, Antonella A1 - Müller, Gabriele A1 - Müller-Nurasyid, Martina A1 - Musk, Arthur W A1 - Nagaraja, Ramaiah A1 - Markus M Nöthen A1 - Ilja M Nolte A1 - Pilz, Stefan A1 - Rayner, Nigel W A1 - Renstrom, Frida A1 - Rettig, Rainer A1 - Ried, Janina S A1 - Ripke, Stephan A1 - Neil R Robertson A1 - Rose, Lynda M A1 - Sanna, Serena A1 - Scharnagl, Hubert A1 - Scholtens, Salome A1 - Schumacher, Fredrick R A1 - Scott, William R A1 - Seufferlein, Thomas A1 - Jianxin Shi A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Smolonska, Joanna A1 - Stanton, Alice V A1 - Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur A1 - Kathleen E Stirrups A1 - Stringham, Heather M A1 - Sundström, Johan A1 - Swertz, Morris A A1 - Swift, Amy J A1 - Syvänen, Ann-Christine A1 - Tan, Sian-Tsung A1 - Bamidele O Tayo A1 - Thorand, Barbara A1 - Thorleifsson, Gudmar A1 - Tyrer, Jonathan P A1 - Uh, Hae-Won A1 - Vandenput, Liesbeth A1 - Verhulst, Frank C A1 - Vermeulen, Sita H A1 - Verweij, Niek A1 - Vonk, Judith M A1 - Lindsay L Waite A1 - Warren, Helen R A1 - Dawn M Waterworth A1 - Michael N Weedon A1 - Wilkens, Lynne R A1 - Willenborg, Christina A1 - Wilsgaard, Tom A1 - Wojczynski, Mary K A1 - Wong, Andrew A1 - Alan F Wright A1 - Zhang, Qunyuan A1 - Brennan, Eoin P A1 - Murim Choi A1 - Dastani, Zari A1 - Alexander W Drong A1 - Eriksson, Per A1 - Franco-Cereceda, Anders A1 - Gådin, Jesper R A1 - Gharavi, Ali G A1 - Goddard, Michael E A1 - Handsaker, Robert E A1 - Huang, Jinyan A1 - Karpe, Fredrik A1 - Kathiresan, Sekar A1 - Keildson, Sarah A1 - Kiryluk, Krzysztof A1 - Kubo, Michiaki A1 - Lee, Jong-Young A1 - Liang, Liming A1 - Lifton, Richard P A1 - Ma, Baoshan A1 - McCarroll, Steven A A1 - McKnight, Amy J A1 - Min, Josine L A1 - Moffatt, Miriam F A1 - Grant W Montgomery A1 - Joanne M Murabito A1 - Nicholson, George A1 - Nyholt, Dale R A1 - Okada, Yukinori A1 - Perry, John R B A1 - Dorajoo, Rajkumar A1 - Reinmaa, Eva A1 - Salem, Rany M A1 - Sandholm, Niina A1 - Scott, Robert A A1 - Stolk, Lisette A1 - Takahashi, Atsushi A1 - Tanaka, Toshihiro A1 - Ferdinand M van 't Hooft A1 - Anna A E Vinkhuyzen A1 - Westra, Harm-Jan A1 - Wei Zhang A1 - Krina T Zondervan A1 - Heath, Andrew C A1 - Arveiler, Dominique A1 - Bakker, Stephan J L A1 - Beilby, John A1 - Bergman, Richard N A1 - Blangero, John A1 - Bovet, Pascal A1 - Campbell, Harry A1 - Caulfield, Mark J A1 - Cesana, Giancarlo A1 - Chakravarti, Aravinda A1 - Chasman, Daniel I A1 - Chines, Peter S A1 - Collins, Francis S A1 - Crawford, Dana C A1 - Cupples, L Adrienne A1 - Cusi, Daniele A1 - Danesh, John A1 - de Faire, Ulf A1 - Hester M den Ruijter A1 - Dominiczak, Anna F A1 - Erbel, Raimund A1 - Erdmann, Jeanette A1 - Johan G. Eriksson A1 - Farrall, Martin A1 - Felix, Stephan B A1 - Ferrannini, Ele A1 - Ferrières, Jean A1 - Ford, Ian A1 - Forouhi, Nita G A1 - Forrester, Terrence A1 - Franco, Oscar H A1 - Gansevoort, Ron T A1 - Gejman, Pablo V A1 - Gieger, Christian A1 - Gottesman, Omri A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - Gyllensten, Ulf A1 - Hall, Alistair S A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Hattersley, Andrew T A1 - Hicks, Andrew A A1 - Hindorff, Lucia A A1 - Hingorani, Aroon D A1 - Hofman, Albert A1 - Homuth, Georg A1 - Hovingh, G Kees A1 - Humphries, Steve E A1 - Hunt, Steven C A1 - Hyppönen, Elina A1 - Illig, Thomas A1 - Jacobs, Kevin B A1 - Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta A1 - Jöckel, Karl-Heinz A1 - Johansen, Berit A1 - Jousilahti, Pekka A1 - Jukema, J Wouter A1 - Jula, Antti M A1 - Kaprio, Jaakko A1 - Kastelein, John J P A1 - Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M A1 - Lambertus A Kiemeney A1 - Knekt, Paul A1 - Kooner, Jaspal S A1 - Kooperberg, Charles A1 - Kovacs, Peter A1 - Kraja, Aldi T A1 - Kumari, Meena A1 - Kuusisto, Johanna A1 - Lakka, Timo A A1 - Langenberg, Claudia A1 - Loic Le Marchand A1 - Lehtimäki, Terho A1 - Lyssenko, Valeriya A1 - Männistö, Satu A1 - Marette, André A1 - Matise, Tara C A1 - McKenzie, Colin A A1 - McKnight, Barbara A1 - Moll, Frans L A1 - Morris, Andrew D A1 - Morris, Andrew P A1 - Murray, Jeffrey C A1 - Nelis, Mari A1 - Ohlsson, Claes A1 - Oldehinkel, Albertine J A1 - Ong, Ken K A1 - Pamela A F Madden A1 - Pasterkamp, Gerard A1 - Peden, John F A1 - Peters, Annette A1 - Postma, Dirkje S A1 - Pramstaller, Peter P A1 - Price, Jackie F A1 - Qi, Lu A1 - Olli T Raitakari A1 - Rankinen, Tuomo A1 - Rao, D C A1 - Rice, Treva K A1 - Ridker, Paul M A1 - Rioux, John D A1 - Ritchie, Marylyn D A1 - Rudan, Igor A1 - Veikko Salomaa A1 - Nilesh J Samani A1 - Saramies, Jouko A1 - Sarzynski, Mark A A1 - Schunkert, Heribert A1 - Schwarz, Peter E H A1 - Sever, Peter A1 - Alan R Shuldiner A1 - Sinisalo, Juha A1 - Stolk, Ronald P A1 - Strauch, Konstantin A1 - Tönjes, Anke A1 - Trégouët, David-Alexandre A1 - Tremblay, Angelo A1 - Tremoli, Elena A1 - Virtamo, Jarmo A1 - Vohl, Marie-Claude A1 - Völker, Uwe A1 - Waeber, Gérard A1 - Gonneke Willemsen A1 - Witteman, Jacqueline C A1 - Zillikens, M Carola A1 - Adair, Linda S A1 - Amouyel, Philippe A1 - Asselbergs, Folkert W A1 - Assimes, Themistocles L A1 - Bochud, Murielle A1 - Boehm, Bernhard O A1 - Boerwinkle, Eric A1 - Bornstein, Stefan R A1 - Erwin P Bottinger A1 - Bouchard, Claude A1 - Cauchi, Stéphane A1 - Chambers, John C A1 - Chanock, Stephen J A1 - Cooper, Richard S A1 - de Bakker, Paul I W A1 - George Dedoussis A1 - Luigi Ferrucci A1 - Franks, Paul W A1 - Froguel, Philippe A1 - Groop, Leif C A1 - Haiman, Christopher A A1 - Hamsten, Anders A1 - Hui, Jennie A1 - Hunter, David J A1 - Hveem, Kristian A1 - Kaplan, Robert C A1 - Mika Kivimäki A1 - Kuh, Diana A1 - Laakso, Markku A1 - Yongmei Liu A1 - Nicholas G Martin A1 - März, Winfried A1 - Melbye, Mads A1 - Andres Metspalu A1 - Moebus, Susanne A1 - Munroe, Patricia B A1 - Njølstad, Inger A1 - Ben A Oostra A1 - Palmer, Colin N A A1 - Nancy L Pedersen A1 - Markus Perola A1 - Pérusse, Louis A1 - Peters, Ulrike A1 - Power, Chris A1 - Quertermous, Thomas A1 - Rauramaa, Rainer A1 - Fernando Rivadeneira A1 - Saaristo, Timo E A1 - Saleheen, Danish A1 - Sattar, Naveed A1 - Schadt, Eric E A1 - Schlessinger, David A1 - Eline P Slagboom A1 - Snieder, Harold A1 - Tim D Spector A1 - Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A1 - Stumvoll, Michael A1 - Tuomilehto, Jaakko A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Uusitupa, Matti A1 - van der Harst, Pim A1 - Walker, Mark A1 - Wallaschofski, Henri A1 - Wareham, Nicholas J A1 - Watkins, Hugh A1 - David R Weir A1 - Wichmann, H-Erich A1 - James F Wilson A1 - Zanen, Pieter A1 - Ingrid B Borecki A1 - Deloukas, Panos A1 - Fox, Caroline S A1 - Heid, Iris M A1 - O'Connell, Jeffrey R A1 - Strachan, David P A1 - Stefansson, Kari A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Gonçalo R Abecasis A1 - Lude L Franke A1 - Timothy M Frayling A1 - McCarthy, Mark I A1 - Peter M Visscher A1 - Scherag, Andre A1 - Willer, Cristen J A1 - Boehnke, Michael A1 - Mohlke, Karen L A1 - Lindgren, Cecilia M A1 - Beckmann, Jacques S A1 - Barroso, Inês A1 - North, Kari E A1 - Ingelsson, Erik A1 - Joel N Hirschhron A1 - Ruth J F Loos A1 - Speliotes, Elizabeth K KW - Age Factors KW - BMI KW - Continental Population Groups KW - Energy Metabolism KW - Europe KW - Female KW - Genome-Wide Association Study KW - Glutamic Acid KW - Humans KW - Insulin KW - Male KW - Obesity KW - Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide KW - Quantitative Trait Loci KW - Synapses AB -Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ∼2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.

VL - 518 IS - 7538 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25673413?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - GWAS of longevity in CHARGE consortium confirms APOE and FOXO3 candidacy. JF - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci Y1 - 2015 A1 - Broer, Linda A1 - Aron S Buchman A1 - Deelen, Joris A1 - Daniel S Evans A1 - Jessica D Faul A1 - Kathryn L Lunetta A1 - Sebastiani, Paola A1 - Jennifer A Smith A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Toshiko Tanaka A1 - Lei Yu A1 - Alice M. Arnold A1 - Aspelund, Thor A1 - Emelia J Benjamin A1 - Philip L. De Jager A1 - Guðny Eiríksdóttir A1 - Melissa E Garcia A1 - Hofman, Albert A1 - Kaplan, Robert C A1 - Sharon L R Kardia A1 - Douglas P Kiel A1 - Ben A Oostra A1 - Orwoll, Eric S A1 - Parimi, Neeta A1 - Psaty, Bruce M A1 - Fernando Rivadeneira A1 - Rotter, Jerome I A1 - Seshadri, Sudha A1 - Andrew B Singleton A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Bandinelli, Stefania A1 - David A Bennett A1 - Luigi Ferrucci A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Karasik, David A1 - Lenore J Launer A1 - Thomas T Perls A1 - Eline P Slagboom A1 - Tranah, Gregory J A1 - David R Weir A1 - Anne B Newman A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Joanne M Murabito KW - Aged KW - Aged, 80 and over KW - Apolipoproteins E KW - Cell Adhesion Molecules KW - Cohort Studies KW - Female KW - Forkhead Box Protein O3 KW - Forkhead Transcription Factors KW - Genome-Wide Association Study KW - Humans KW - Longevity KW - Male KW - Middle Aged KW - Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide KW - Receptors, Kainic Acid AB -**BACKGROUND: **The genetic contribution to longevity in humans has been estimated to range from 15% to 25%. Only two genes, APOE and FOXO3, have shown association with longevity in multiple independent studies.

**METHODS: **We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies including 6,036 longevity cases, age ≥90 years, and 3,757 controls that died between ages 55 and 80 years. We additionally attempted to replicate earlier identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with longevity.

**RESULTS: **In our meta-analysis, we found suggestive evidence for the association of SNPs near CADM2 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81; p value = 9.66 × 10(-7)) and GRIK2 (odds ratio = 1.24; p value = 5.09 × 10(-8)) with longevity. When attempting to replicate findings earlier identified in genome-wide association studies, only the APOE locus consistently replicated. In an additional look-up of the candidate gene FOXO3, we found that an earlier identified variant shows a highly significant association with longevity when including published data with our meta-analysis (odds ratio = 1.17; p value = 1.85×10(-10)).

**CONCLUSIONS: **We did not identify new genome-wide significant associations with longevity and did not replicate earlier findings except for APOE and FOXO3. Our inability to find new associations with survival to ages ≥90 years because longevity represents multiple complex traits with heterogeneous genetic underpinnings, or alternatively, that longevity may be regulated by rare variants that are not captured by standard genome-wide genotyping and imputation of common variants.

Menopause timing has a substantial impact on infertility and risk of disease, including breast cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We report a dual strategy in ∼70,000 women to identify common and low-frequency protein-coding variation associated with age at natural menopause (ANM). We identified 44 regions with common variants, including two regions harboring additional rare missense alleles of large effect. We found enrichment of signals in or near genes involved in delayed puberty, highlighting the first molecular links between the onset and end of reproductive lifespan. Pathway analyses identified major association with DNA damage response (DDR) genes, including the first common coding variant in BRCA1 associated with any complex trait. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of later ANM on breast cancer risk (∼6% increase in risk per year; P = 3 × 10(-14)), likely mediated by prolonged sex hormone exposure rather than DDR mechanisms.

VL - 47 IS - 11 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26414677?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Cohort Profile: the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). JF - Int J Epidemiol Y1 - 2014 A1 - Amanda Sonnega A1 - Jessica D Faul A1 - Mary Beth Ofstedal A1 - Kenneth M. Langa A1 - John W R Phillips A1 - David R Weir KW - Aged KW - Female KW - Genetic Predisposition to Disease KW - Health Status KW - Humans KW - Longitudinal Studies KW - Male KW - Mental Health KW - Middle Aged KW - Physical Fitness KW - Retirement KW - United States AB -The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of more than 37 000 individuals over age 50 in 23 000 households in the USA. The survey, which has been fielded every 2 years since 1992, was established to provide a national resource for data on the changing health and economic circumstances associated with ageing at both individual and population levels. Its multidisciplinary approach is focused on four broad topics-income and wealth; health, cognition and use of healthcare services; work and retirement; and family connections. HRS data are also linked at the individual level to administrative records from Social Security and Medicare, Veteran's Administration, the National Death Index and employer-provided pension plan information. Since 2006, data collection has expanded to include biomarkers and genetics as well as much greater depth in psychology and social context. This blend of economic, health and psychosocial information provides unprecedented potential to study increasingly complex questions about ageing and retirement. The HRS has been a leading force for rapid release of data while simultaneously protecting the confidentiality of respondents. Three categories of data-public, sensitive and restricted-can be accessed through procedures described on the HRS website (hrsonline.isr.umich.edu).

PB - 43 VL - 43 IS - 2 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24671021?dopt=Abstract U4 - administrative data/Restricted data ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Genetic diversity is a predictor of mortality in humans. JF - BMC Genet Y1 - 2014 A1 - Bihlmeyer, Nathan A A1 - Brody, Jennifer A A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Kathryn L Lunetta A1 - Michael A Nalls A1 - Jennifer A Smith A1 - Toshiko Tanaka A1 - Gail Davies A1 - Lei Yu A1 - Saira S Mirza A1 - Teumer, Alexander A1 - Coresh, Josef A1 - Pankow, James S A1 - Franceschini, Nora A1 - Scaria, Anish A1 - Oshima, Junko A1 - Psaty, Bruce M A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - Guðny Eiríksdóttir A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Li, Hanyue A1 - Karasik, David A1 - Douglas P Kiel A1 - Melissa E Garcia A1 - Yongmei Liu A1 - Jessica D Faul A1 - Sharon L R Kardia A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Luigi Ferrucci A1 - Allerhand, Michael A1 - David C Liewald A1 - Redmond, Paul A1 - John M Starr A1 - Philip L. De Jager A1 - Nese Direk A1 - Mohammed Arfan Ikram A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Homuth, Georg A1 - Lorbeer, Roberto A1 - Grabe, Hans J A1 - Lenore J Launer A1 - Joanne M Murabito A1 - Andrew B Singleton A1 - David R Weir A1 - Bandinelli, Stefania A1 - Ian J Deary A1 - David A Bennett A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - Kocher, Thomas A1 - Lumley, Thomas A1 - Dan E Arking KW - Genome-Wide Association Study KW - Heterozygote KW - Humans KW - Mortality KW - Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide KW - Proportional Hazards Models AB -**BACKGROUND: **It has been well-established, both by population genetics theory and direct observation in many organisms, that increased genetic diversity provides a survival advantage. However, given the limitations of both sample size and genome-wide metrics, this hypothesis has not been comprehensively tested in human populations. Moreover, the presence of numerous segregating small effect alleles that influence traits that directly impact health directly raises the question as to whether global measures of genomic variation are themselves associated with human health and disease.

**RESULTS: **We performed a meta-analysis of 17 cohorts followed prospectively, with a combined sample size of 46,716 individuals, including a total of 15,234 deaths. We find a significant association between increased heterozygosity and survival (P = 0.03). We estimate that within a single population, every standard deviation of heterozygosity an individual has over the mean decreases that person's risk of death by 1.57%.

**CONCLUSIONS: **This effect was consistent between European and African ancestry cohorts, men and women, and major causes of death (cancer and cardiovascular disease), demonstrating the broad positive impact of genomic diversity on human survival.

High blood pressure (BP) is more prevalent and contributes to more severe manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in African Americans than in any other United States ethnic group. Several small African-ancestry (AA) BP genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been published, but their findings have failed to replicate to date. We report on a large AA BP GWAS meta-analysis that includes 29,378 individuals from 19 discovery cohorts and subsequent replication in additional samples of AA (n = 10,386), European ancestry (EA) (n = 69,395), and East Asian ancestry (n = 19,601). Five loci (EVX1-HOXA, ULK4, RSPO3, PLEKHG1, and SOX6) reached genome-wide significance (p < 1.0 × 10(-8)) for either systolic or diastolic BP in a transethnic meta-analysis after correction for multiple testing. Three of these BP loci (EVX1-HOXA, RSPO3, and PLEKHG1) lack previous associations with BP. We also identified one independent signal in a known BP locus (SOX6) and provide evidence for fine mapping in four additional validated BP loci. We also demonstrate that validated EA BP GWAS loci, considered jointly, show significant effects in AA samples. Consequently, these findings suggest that BP loci might have universal effects across studied populations, demonstrating that multiethnic samples are an essential component in identifying, fine mapping, and understanding their trait variability.

VL - 93 IS - 3 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23972371?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment. JF - Science Y1 - 2013 A1 - Cornelius A Rietveld A1 - Sarah E Medland A1 - Derringer, Jaime A1 - Yang, Jian A1 - Tõnu Esko A1 - Martin, Nicolas W A1 - Westra, Harm-Jan A1 - Shakhbazov, Konstantin A1 - Abdel Abdellaoui A1 - Agrawal, Arpana A1 - Albrecht, Eva A1 - Alizadeh, Behrooz Z A1 - Amin, Najaf A1 - Barnard, John A1 - Baumeister, Sebastian E A1 - Benke, Kelly S A1 - Bielak, Lawrence F A1 - Boatman, Jeffrey A A1 - Patricia A. Boyle A1 - Gail Davies A1 - Christiaan de Leeuw A1 - Eklund, Niina A1 - Daniel S Evans A1 - Rudolf Ferhmann A1 - Fischer, Krista A1 - Gieger, Christian A1 - Gjessing, Håkon K A1 - Hägg, Sara A1 - Harris, Jennifer R A1 - Caroline Hayward A1 - Holzapfel, Christina A1 - Carla A Ibrahim-Verbaas A1 - Ingelsson, Erik A1 - Jacobsson, Bo A1 - Joshi, Peter K A1 - Jugessur, Astanand A1 - Marika A Kaakinen A1 - Kanoni, Stavroula A1 - Karjalainen, Juha A1 - Kolcic, Ivana A1 - Kristiansson, Kati A1 - Kutalik, Zoltán A1 - J. Lahti A1 - Lee, Sang H A1 - Lin, Peng A1 - Penelope A Lind A1 - Yongmei Liu A1 - Lohman, Kurt A1 - Loitfelder, Marisa A1 - McMahon, George A1 - Vidal, Pedro Marques A1 - Osorio Meirelles A1 - Lili Milani A1 - Myhre, Ronny A1 - Nuotio, Marja-Liisa A1 - Christopher J Oldmeadow A1 - Petrovic, Katja E A1 - Wouter J Peyrot A1 - Polasek, Ozren A1 - Quaye, Lydia A1 - Reinmaa, Eva A1 - Rice, John P A1 - Rizzi, Thais S A1 - Schmidt, Helena A1 - Schmidt, Reinhold A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Jennifer A Smith A1 - Toshiko Tanaka A1 - Antonio Terracciano A1 - van der Loos, Matthijs J H M A1 - Vitart, Veronique A1 - Völzke, Henry A1 - Jürgen Wellmann A1 - Lei Yu A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Allik, Jüri A1 - John R. Attia A1 - Bandinelli, Stefania A1 - Bastardot, François A1 - Jonathan P. Beauchamp A1 - David A Bennett A1 - Klaus Berger A1 - Bierut, Laura J A1 - Dorret I Boomsma A1 - Bültmann, Ute A1 - Campbell, Harry A1 - Chabris, Christopher F A1 - Cherkas, Lynn A1 - Chung, Mina K A1 - Francesco Cucca A1 - de Andrade, Mariza A1 - Philip L. De Jager A1 - De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel A1 - Ian J Deary A1 - George Dedoussis A1 - Deloukas, Panos A1 - Dimitriou, Maria A1 - Guðny Eiríksdóttir A1 - Elderson, Martin F A1 - Johan G. Eriksson A1 - Jessica D Faul A1 - Luigi Ferrucci A1 - Melissa E Garcia A1 - Grönberg, Henrik A1 - Guðnason, Vilmundur A1 - Hall, Per A1 - Harris, Juliette M A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Nicholas D Hastie A1 - Heath, Andrew C A1 - Dena G Hernandez A1 - Hoffmann, Wolfgang A1 - Hofman, Adriaan A1 - Holle, Rolf A1 - Holliday, Elizabeth G A1 - Jouke-Jan Hottenga A1 - Iacono, William G A1 - Illig, Thomas A1 - Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta A1 - Kähönen, Mika A1 - Kaprio, Jaakko A1 - Kirkpatrick, Robert M A1 - Kowgier, Matthew A1 - Latvala, Antti A1 - Lenore J Launer A1 - Lawlor, Debbie A A1 - Lehtimäki, Terho A1 - Li, Jingmei A1 - Paul Lichtenstein A1 - Lichtner, Peter A1 - David C Liewald A1 - Pamela A F Madden A1 - Patrik K E Magnusson A1 - Mäkinen, Tomi E A1 - Masala, Marco A1 - McGue, Matt A1 - Andres Metspalu A1 - Mielck, Andreas A1 - Michael B Miller A1 - Grant W Montgomery A1 - Mukherjee, Sutapa A1 - Nyholt, Dale R A1 - Ben A Oostra A1 - Palmer, Lyle J A1 - Aarno Palotie A1 - Brenda W J H Penninx A1 - Markus Perola A1 - Peyser, Patricia A A1 - Preisig, Martin A1 - Katri Räikkönen A1 - Olli T Raitakari A1 - Realo, Anu A1 - Ring, Susan M A1 - Ripatti, Samuli A1 - Fernando Rivadeneira A1 - Rudan, Igor A1 - Rustichini, Aldo A1 - Veikko Salomaa A1 - Sarin, Antti-Pekka A1 - Schlessinger, David A1 - Rodney J Scott A1 - Snieder, Harold A1 - St Pourcain, Beate A1 - John M Starr A1 - Sul, Jae Hoon A1 - Surakka, Ida A1 - Svento, Rauli A1 - Teumer, Alexander A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - van Rooij, Frank J A A1 - Van Wagoner, David R A1 - Vartiainen, Erkki A1 - Viikari, Jorma A1 - Vollenweider, Peter A1 - Vonk, Judith M A1 - Waeber, Gérard A1 - David R Weir A1 - Wichmann, H-Erich A1 - Elisabeth Widen A1 - Gonneke Willemsen A1 - James F Wilson A1 - Alan F Wright A1 - Dalton C Conley A1 - Davey-Smith, George A1 - Lude L Franke A1 - Groenen, Patrick J F A1 - Hofman, Albert A1 - Johannesson, Magnus A1 - Sharon L R Kardia A1 - Krueger, Robert F A1 - David I Laibson A1 - Nicholas G Martin A1 - Meyer, Michelle N A1 - Posthuma, Danielle A1 - A. Roy Thurik A1 - Nicholas J Timpson A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Peter M Visscher A1 - Daniel J. Benjamin A1 - Cesarini, David A1 - Philipp D Koellinger KW - Cognition KW - Educational Status KW - Endophenotypes KW - Female KW - Genetic Loci KW - Genome-Wide Association Study KW - Humans KW - Male KW - Multifactorial Inheritance KW - Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide AB -A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R(2) ≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.

VL - 340 IS - 6139 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23722424?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Linking Survey and Administrative Records: Mechanisms of Consent JF - Sociological Methods & Research Y1 - 2012 A1 - Joseph W Sakshaug A1 - Mick P. Couper A1 - Mary Beth Ofstedal A1 - David R Weir KW - Consent KW - Meta-analyses KW - Survey Methodology AB -Survey records are increasingly being linked to administrative databases to enhance the survey data and increase research opportunities for data users. A necessary prerequisite to linking survey and administrative records is obtaining informed consent from respondents. Obtaining consent from all respondents is a difficult challenge and one that faces significant resistance. Consequently, data linkage consent rates vary widely from study-to-study. Several studies have found significant differences between consenters and non-consenters on socio-demographic variables, but no study has investigated the underlying mechanisms of consent from a theory-driven perspective. In this study, we describe and test several hypotheses related to respondents' willingness to consent to an earnings and benefit data linkage request based on mechanisms related to financial uncertainty, privacy concerns, resistance towards the survey interview, level of attentiveness during the interview, the respondents' preexisting relationship with the administrative data agency, and matching respondents and interviewers on observable characteristics. The results point to several implications for survey practice and suggestions for future research.

VL - 41 IS - 4 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Recruitment and retention of minority participants in the health and retirement study. JF - Gerontologist Y1 - 2011 A1 - Mary Beth Ofstedal A1 - David R Weir KW - African Americans KW - Aged KW - Biomarkers KW - Female KW - Health Promotion KW - Health Surveys KW - Hispanic Americans KW - Humans KW - Male KW - Middle Aged KW - Minority Groups KW - Minority health KW - National Health Programs KW - Patient Dropouts KW - Patient Selection KW - Retirement KW - Sampling Studies KW - Surveys and Questionnaires KW - United States AB -**PURPOSE: **Minority oversamples of African Americans and Hispanics have been a key feature of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) design from its origins in 1992. The objective of this article was to assess the quality of the HRS with respect to the recruitment and retention of minority respondents.

**DESIGN AND METHODS: **To evaluate minority recruitment efforts, we examine baseline response rates for the early baby boom cohort that was added in the 2004 wave and the representativeness of this cohort with regard to demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics. To evaluate retention, we focus on minority differentials in 2008 interview, nonresponse and mortality outcomes for the full HRS sample. We also examine minority differentials in participation in supplemental components of the HRS.

**RESULTS: **Minority response rates at baseline and in longitudinal follow-ups for the main HRS interview have been equal to or better than that of majority Whites. Conversely, response rates to some specific supplemental components have been lower for minority sample members.

**IMPLICATIONS: **The oversample strategies that the HRS has employed have been successful at identifying and recruiting minority participants at response rates very comparable with that of Whites and others. Minority differentials in participation in supplemental components have been overcome to some extent through interviewer training and targeted follow-up strategies. The HRS experience suggests that well-trained interviewers can overcome most if not all of whatever race and ethnic differentials exist in willingness to participate in surveys, including those involving biological data collection.

**BACKGROUND: **Cognitive impairment without dementia is associated with increased risk for disability, increased health care costs, and progression to dementia. There are no population-based prevalence estimates of this condition in the United States.

**OBJECTIVE: **To estimate the prevalence of cognitive impairment without dementia in the United States and determine longitudinal cognitive and mortality outcomes.

**DESIGN: **Longitudinal study from July 2001 to March 2005.

**SETTING: **In-home assessment for cognitive impairment.

**PARTICIPANTS: **Participants in ADAMS (Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study) who were age 71 years or older drawn from the nationally representative HRS (Health and Retirement Study). Of 1770 selected individuals, 856 completed initial assessment, and of 241 selected individuals, 180 completed 16- to 18-month follow-up assessment.

**MEASUREMENTS: **Assessments, including neuropsychological testing, neurologic examination, and clinical and medical history, were used to assign a diagnosis of normal cognition, cognitive impairment without dementia, or dementia. National prevalence rates were estimated by using a population-weighted sample.

**RESULTS: **In 2002, an estimated 5.4 million people (22.2%) in the United States age 71 years or older had cognitive impairment without dementia. Prominent subtypes included prodromal Alzheimer disease (8.2%) and cerebrovascular disease (5.7%). Among participants who completed follow-up assessments, 11.7% with cognitive impairment without dementia progressed to dementia annually, whereas those with subtypes of prodromal Alzheimer disease and stroke progressed at annual rates of 17% to 20%. The annual death rate was 8% among those with cognitive impairment without dementia and almost 15% among those with cognitive impairment due to medical conditions.

**LIMITATIONS: **Only 56% of the nondeceased target sample completed the initial assessment. Population sampling weights were derived to adjust for at least some of the potential bias due to nonresponse and attrition.

**CONCLUSION: **Cognitive impairment without dementia is more prevalent in the United States than dementia, and its subtypes vary in prevalence and outcomes.

**AIM: **To estimate the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias in the USA using a nationally representative sample.

**METHODS: **The Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study sample was composed of 856 individuals aged 71 years and older from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who were evaluated for dementia using a comprehensive in-home assessment. An expert consensus panel used this information to assign a diagnosis of normal cognition, cognitive impairment but not demented, or dementia (and dementia subtype). Using sampling weights derived from the HRS, we estimated the national prevalence of dementia, AD and vascular dementia by age and gender.

**RESULTS: **The prevalence of dementia among individuals aged 71 and older was 13.9%, comprising about 3.4 million individuals in the USA in 2002. The corresponding values for AD were 9.7% and 2.4 million individuals. Dementia prevalence increased with age, from 5.0% of those aged 71-79 years to 37.4% of those aged 90 and older.

**CONCLUSIONS: **Dementia prevalence estimates from this first nationally representative population-based study of dementia in the USA to include subjects from all regions of the country can provide essential information for effective planning for the impending healthcare needs of the large and increasing number of individuals at risk for dementia as our population ages.