Here we conducted a large-scale genetic association analysis of educational attainment in a sample of approximately 1.1 million individuals and identify 1,271 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs. For the SNPs taken together, we found evidence of heterogeneous effects across environments. The SNPs implicate genes involved in brain-development processes and neuron-to-neuron communication. In a separate analysis of the X chromosome, we identify 10 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs and estimate a SNP heritability of around 0.3% in both men and women, consistent with partial dosage compensation. A joint (multi-phenotype) analysis of educational attainment and three related cognitive phenotypes generates polygenic scores that explain 11-13% of the variance in educational attainment and 7-10% of the variance in cognitive performance. This prediction accuracy substantially increases the utility of polygenic scores as tools in research.

VL - 50 IS - 8 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30038396?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses. JF - Nat Genet Y1 - 2016 A1 - Okbay, Aysu A1 - Baselmans, Bart M L A1 - De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel A1 - Turley, Patrick A1 - Nivard, Michel G A1 - Mark Alan Fontana A1 - Meddens, S Fleur W A1 - Richard Karlsson Linnér A1 - Cornelius A Rietveld A1 - Derringer, Jaime A1 - Gratten, Jacob A1 - Lee, James J A1 - Liu, Jimmy Z A1 - de Vlaming, Ronald A1 - Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S A1 - Buchwald, Jadwiga A1 - Cavadino, Alana A1 - Frazier-Wood, Alexis C A1 - Furlotte, Nicholas A A1 - Garfield, Victoria A1 - Geisel, Marie Henrike A1 - Gonzalez, Juan R A1 - Haitjema, Saskia A1 - Karlsson, Robert A1 - van der Laan, Sander W A1 - Ladwig, Karl-Heinz A1 - J. Lahti A1 - Sven J van der Lee A1 - Penelope A Lind A1 - Tian Liu A1 - Lindsay K Matteson A1 - Mihailov, Evelin A1 - Michael B Miller A1 - Minica, Camelia C A1 - Ilja M Nolte A1 - Dennis O Mook-Kanamori A1 - van der Most, Peter J A1 - Christopher J Oldmeadow A1 - Qian, Yong A1 - Olli T Raitakari A1 - Rawal, Rajesh A1 - Realo, Anu A1 - Rueedi, Rico A1 - Schmidt, Börge A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Stergiakouli, Evie A1 - Toshiko Tanaka A1 - Kent D Taylor A1 - Wedenoja, Juho A1 - Jürgen Wellmann A1 - Westra, Harm-Jan A1 - Willems, Sara M A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Amin, Najaf A1 - Bakshi, Andrew A1 - Patricia A. Boyle A1 - Cherney, Samantha A1 - Cox, Simon R A1 - Gail Davies A1 - Davis, Oliver S P A1 - Ding, Jun A1 - Nese Direk A1 - Eibich, Peter A1 - Emeny, Rebecca T A1 - Fatemifar, Ghazaleh A1 - Jessica D Faul A1 - Luigi Ferrucci A1 - Andreas J Forstner A1 - Gieger, Christian A1 - Gupta, Richa A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Harris, Juliette M A1 - Holliday, Elizabeth G A1 - Jouke-Jan Hottenga A1 - Philip L. De Jager A1 - Marika A Kaakinen A1 - Kajantie, Eero A1 - Karhunen, Ville A1 - Kolcic, Ivana A1 - Kumari, Meena A1 - Lenore J Launer A1 - Lude L Franke A1 - Li-Gao, Ruifang A1 - Koini, Marisa A1 - Loukola, Anu A1 - Marques-Vidal, Pedro A1 - Grant W Montgomery A1 - Mosing, Miriam A A1 - Paternoster, Lavinia A1 - Pattie, Alison A1 - Petrovic, Katja E A1 - Pulkki-Raback, Laura A1 - Quaye, Lydia A1 - Katri Räikkönen A1 - Rudan, Igor A1 - Rodney J Scott A1 - Jennifer A Smith A1 - Angelina R Sutin A1 - Trzaskowski, Maciej A1 - Anna A E Vinkhuyzen A1 - Lei Yu A1 - Zabaneh, Delilah A1 - John R. Attia A1 - David A Bennett A1 - Klaus Berger A1 - Bertram, Lars A1 - Dorret I Boomsma A1 - Snieder, Harold A1 - Chang, Shun-Chiao A1 - Francesco Cucca A1 - Ian J Deary A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Johan G. Eriksson A1 - Bültmann, Ute A1 - Eco J. C. de Geus A1 - Groenen, Patrick J F A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - Hansen, Torben A1 - Catharina A Hartman A1 - Haworth, Claire M A A1 - Caroline Hayward A1 - Heath, Andrew C A1 - Hinds, David A A1 - Hyppönen, Elina A1 - Iacono, William G A1 - Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta A1 - Jöckel, Karl-Heinz A1 - Kaprio, Jaakko A1 - Sharon L R Kardia A1 - Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa A1 - Kraft, Peter A1 - Laura D Kubzansky A1 - Lehtimäki, Terho A1 - Patrik K E Magnusson A1 - Nicholas G Martin A1 - McGue, Matt A1 - Andres Metspalu A1 - Melinda C Mills A1 - de Mutsert, Renée A1 - Oldehinkel, Albertine J A1 - Pasterkamp, Gerard A1 - Nancy L Pedersen A1 - Plomin, Robert A1 - Polasek, Ozren A1 - Power, Christine A1 - Rich, Stephen S A1 - Rosendaal, Frits R A1 - Hester M. den Ruijter A1 - Schlessinger, David A1 - Schmidt, Helena A1 - Svento, Rauli A1 - Schmidt, Reinhold A1 - Alizadeh, Behrooz Z A1 - Thorkild I. A. Sørensen A1 - Tim D Spector A1 - Steptoe, Andrew A1 - Antonio Terracciano A1 - A. Roy Thurik A1 - Nicholas J Timpson A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Vollenweider, Peter A1 - Wagner, Gert G A1 - David R Weir A1 - Yang, Jian A1 - Dalton C Conley A1 - Hofman, Albert A1 - Johannesson, Magnus A1 - David I Laibson A1 - Sarah E Medland A1 - Meyer, Michelle N A1 - Pickrell, Joseph K A1 - Tõnu Esko A1 - Krueger, Robert F A1 - Jonathan P. Beauchamp A1 - Philipp D Koellinger A1 - Daniel J. Benjamin A1 - Bartels, Meike A1 - Cesarini, David KW - Anxiety Disorders KW - Bayes Theorem KW - depression KW - Genome-Wide Association Study KW - Humans KW - Neuroticism KW - Phenotype KW - Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide AB -Very few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted genome-wide association studies of three phenotypes: subjective well-being (n = 298,420), depressive symptoms (n = 161,460), and neuroticism (n = 170,911). We identify 3 variants associated with subjective well-being, 2 variants associated with depressive symptoms, and 11 variants associated with neuroticism, including 2 inversion polymorphisms. The two loci associated with depressive symptoms replicate in an independent depression sample. Joint analyses that exploit the high genetic correlations between the phenotypes (|ρ^| ≈ 0.8) strengthen the overall credibility of the findings and allow us to identify additional variants. Across our phenotypes, loci regulating expression in central nervous system and adrenal or pancreas tissues are strongly enriched for association.

VL - 48 IS - 6 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27089181?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior. JF - Nat Genet Y1 - 2016 A1 - Nicola Barban A1 - Jansen, Rick A1 - de Vlaming, Ronald A1 - Vaez, Ahmad A1 - Mandemakers, Jornt J A1 - Felix C Tropf A1 - Shen, Xia A1 - James F Wilson A1 - Chasman, Daniel I A1 - Ilja M Nolte A1 - Tragante, Vinicius A1 - van der Laan, Sander W A1 - Perry, John R B A1 - Kong, Augustine A1 - Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S A1 - Albrecht, Eva A1 - Laura M Yerges-Armstrong A1 - Atzmon, Gil A1 - Auro, Kirsi A1 - Kristin L. Ayers A1 - Bakshi, Andrew A1 - Ben-Avraham, Danny A1 - Klaus Berger A1 - Bergman, Aviv A1 - Bertram, Lars A1 - Bielak, Lawrence F A1 - Bjornsdottir, Gyda A1 - Bonder, Marc Jan A1 - Broer, Linda A1 - Bui, Minh A1 - Barbieri, Caterina A1 - Cavadino, Alana A1 - Chavarro, Jorge E A1 - Turman, Constance A1 - Maria Pina Concas A1 - Cordell, Heather J A1 - Gail Davies A1 - Eibich, Peter A1 - Eriksson, Nicholas A1 - Tõnu Esko A1 - Eriksson, Joel A1 - Falahi, Fahimeh A1 - Felix, Janine F A1 - Mark Alan Fontana A1 - Lude L Franke A1 - Gandin, Ilaria A1 - Gaskins, Audrey J A1 - Gieger, Christian A1 - Gunderson, Erica P A1 - Guo, Xiuqing A1 - Caroline Hayward A1 - He, Chunyan A1 - Edith Hofer A1 - Huang, Hongyan A1 - Joshi, Peter K A1 - Kanoni, Stavroula A1 - Karlsson, Robert A1 - Kiechl, Stefan A1 - Kifley, Annette A1 - Kluttig, Alexander A1 - Kraft, Peter A1 - Lagou, Vasiliki A1 - Lecoeur, Cecile A1 - Lahti, Jari A1 - Li-Gao, Ruifang A1 - Penelope A Lind A1 - Tian Liu A1 - Makalic, Enes A1 - Mamasoula, Crysovalanto A1 - Lindsay K Matteson A1 - Mbarek, Hamdi A1 - McArdle, Patrick F A1 - McMahon, George A1 - Meddens, S Fleur W A1 - Mihailov, Evelin A1 - Michael B Miller A1 - Missmer, Stacey A A1 - Monnereau, Claire A1 - van der Most, Peter J A1 - Myhre, Ronny A1 - Michael A Nalls A1 - Nutile, Teresa A1 - Ioanna Panagiota Kalafati A1 - Porcu, Eleonora A1 - Prokopenko, Inga A1 - Rajan, Kumar B A1 - Rich-Edwards, Janet A1 - Cornelius A Rietveld A1 - Robino, Antonietta A1 - Rose, Lynda M A1 - Rueedi, Rico A1 - Ryan, Kathleen A A1 - Saba, Yasaman A1 - Schmidt, Daniel A1 - Jennifer A Smith A1 - Stolk, Lisette A1 - Streeten, Elizabeth A1 - Tönjes, Anke A1 - Thorleifsson, Gudmar A1 - Ulivi, Sheila A1 - Wedenoja, Juho A1 - Jürgen Wellmann A1 - Willeit, Peter A1 - Yao, Jie A1 - Yengo, Loic A1 - Jing Hua Zhao A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Zhernakova, Daria V A1 - Amin, Najaf A1 - Andrews, Howard A1 - Balkau, Beverley A1 - Barzilai, Nir A1 - Bergmann, Sven A1 - Biino, Ginevra A1 - Bisgaard, Hans A1 - Bønnelykke, Klaus A1 - Dorret I Boomsma A1 - Buring, Julie E A1 - Campbell, Harry A1 - Cappellani, Stefania A1 - Ciullo, Marina A1 - Cox, Simon R A1 - Francesco Cucca A1 - Toniolo, Daniela A1 - Davey-Smith, George A1 - Ian J Deary A1 - George Dedoussis A1 - Deloukas, Panos A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Eco J. C. de Geus A1 - Johan G. Eriksson A1 - Jessica D Faul A1 - Cinzia Felicita Sala A1 - Froguel, Philippe A1 - Paolo P. Gasparini A1 - Giorgia G Girotto A1 - Grabe, Hans-Jörgen A1 - Greiser, Karin Halina A1 - Groenen, Patrick J F A1 - de Haan, Hugoline G A1 - Haerting, Johannes A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Heath, Andrew C A1 - Heikkilä, Kauko A1 - Hofman, Albert A1 - Homuth, Georg A1 - Holliday, Elizabeth G A1 - John L Hopper A1 - Hyppönen, Elina A1 - Jacobsson, Bo A1 - Vincent Jaddoe A1 - Johannesson, Magnus A1 - Jugessur, Astanand A1 - Kähönen, Mika A1 - Kajantie, Eero A1 - Sharon L R Kardia A1 - Keavney, Bernard A1 - Kolcic, Ivana A1 - Koponen, Päivikki A1 - Kovacs, Peter A1 - Kronenberg, Florian A1 - Kutalik, Zoltán A1 - La Bianca, Martina A1 - Lachance, Genevieve A1 - Iacono, William G A1 - Lai, Sandra A1 - Lehtimäki, Terho A1 - David C Liewald A1 - Lindgren, Cecilia M A1 - Yongmei Liu A1 - Luben, Robert A1 - Lucht, Michael A1 - Luoto, Riitta A1 - Magnus, Per A1 - Patrik K E Magnusson A1 - Nicholas G Martin A1 - McGue, Matt A1 - McQuillan, Ruth A1 - Sarah E Medland A1 - Meisinger, Christa A1 - Mellström, Dan A1 - Andres Metspalu A1 - Traglia, Michela A1 - Lili Milani A1 - Mitchell, Paul A1 - Grant W Montgomery A1 - Dennis O Mook-Kanamori A1 - de Mutsert, Renée A1 - Nohr, Ellen A A1 - Ohlsson, Claes A1 - Olsen, Jørn A1 - Ong, Ken K A1 - Paternoster, Lavinia A1 - Pattie, Alison A1 - Brenda W J H Penninx A1 - Markus Perola A1 - Peyser, Patricia A A1 - Pirastu, Mario A1 - Polasek, Ozren A1 - Power, Chris A1 - Kaprio, Jaakko A1 - Raffel, Leslie J A1 - Katri Räikkönen A1 - Olli T Raitakari A1 - Ridker, Paul M A1 - Ring, Susan M A1 - Roll, Kathryn A1 - Rudan, Igor A1 - Ruggiero, Daniela A1 - Rujescu, Dan A1 - Veikko Salomaa A1 - Schlessinger, David A1 - Schmidt, Helena A1 - Schmidt, Reinhold A1 - Schupf, Nicole A1 - Johannes Smit A1 - Sorice, Rossella A1 - Tim D Spector A1 - John M Starr A1 - Stöckl, Doris A1 - Strauch, Konstantin A1 - Stumvoll, Michael A1 - Swertz, Morris A A1 - Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A1 - A. Roy Thurik A1 - Nicholas J Timpson A1 - Tung, Joyce Y A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Vaccargiu, Simona A1 - Viikari, Jorma A1 - Vitart, Veronique A1 - Völzke, Henry A1 - Vollenweider, Peter A1 - Vuckovic, Dragana A1 - Waage, Johannes A1 - Wagner, Gert G A1 - Wang, Jie Jin A1 - Wareham, Nicholas J A1 - David R Weir A1 - Gonneke Willemsen A1 - Willeit, Johann A1 - Alan F Wright A1 - Krina T Zondervan A1 - Stefansson, Kari A1 - Krueger, Robert F A1 - Lee, James J A1 - Daniel J. Benjamin A1 - Cesarini, David A1 - Philipp D Koellinger A1 - den Hoed, Marcel A1 - Snieder, Harold A1 - Melinda C Mills AB -The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior-age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)-has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlying mechanisms of AFB and NEB are poorly understood. We report a large genome-wide association study of both sexes including 251,151 individuals for AFB and 343,072 individuals for NEB. We identified 12 independent loci that are significantly associated with AFB and/or NEB in a SNP-based genome-wide association study and 4 additional loci associated in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to have a role, either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression, in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing understanding of these complex traits.

VL - 48 IS - 12 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798627?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment. JF - Nature Y1 - 2016 A1 - Okbay, Aysu A1 - Jonathan P. Beauchamp A1 - Mark Alan Fontana A1 - Lee, James J A1 - Pers, Tune H A1 - Cornelius A Rietveld A1 - Turley, Patrick A1 - Chen, Guo-Bo A1 - Emilsson, Valur A1 - Meddens, S Fleur W A1 - Oskarsson, Sven A1 - Pickrell, Joseph K A1 - Thom, Kevin A1 - Pascal N Timshel A1 - de Vlaming, Ronald A1 - Abdel Abdellaoui A1 - Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S A1 - Bacelis, Jonas A1 - Baumbach, Clemens A1 - Bjornsdottir, Gyda A1 - Brandsma, Johannes H A1 - Maria Pina Concas A1 - Derringer, Jaime A1 - Furlotte, Nicholas A A1 - Galesloot, Tessel E A1 - Giorgia G Girotto A1 - Gupta, Richa A1 - Hall, Leanne M A1 - Sarah E Harris A1 - Edith Hofer A1 - Horikoshi, Momoko A1 - Huffman, Jennifer E A1 - Kaasik, Kadri A1 - Ioanna Panagiota Kalafati A1 - Karlsson, Robert A1 - Kong, Augustine A1 - Lahti, Jari A1 - Sven J van der Lee A1 - Christiaan de Leeuw A1 - Penelope A Lind A1 - Lindgren, Karl-Oskar A1 - Tian Liu A1 - Mangino, Massimo A1 - Marten, Jonathan A1 - Mihailov, Evelin A1 - Michael B Miller A1 - van der Most, Peter J A1 - Christopher J Oldmeadow A1 - Payton, Antony A1 - Pervjakova, Natalia A1 - Wouter J Peyrot A1 - Qian, Yong A1 - Olli T Raitakari A1 - Rueedi, Rico A1 - Salvi, Erika A1 - Schmidt, Börge A1 - Schraut, Katharina E A1 - Jianxin Shi A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Poot, Raymond A A1 - St Pourcain, Beate A1 - Teumer, Alexander A1 - Thorleifsson, Gudmar A1 - Verweij, Niek A1 - Vuckovic, Dragana A1 - Jürgen Wellmann A1 - Westra, Harm-Jan A1 - Yang, Jingyun A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Zhihong Zhu A1 - Alizadeh, Behrooz Z A1 - Amin, Najaf A1 - Bakshi, Andrew A1 - Baumeister, Sebastian E A1 - Biino, Ginevra A1 - Bønnelykke, Klaus A1 - Patricia A. Boyle A1 - Campbell, Harry A1 - Cappuccio, Francesco P A1 - Gail Davies A1 - De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel A1 - Deloukas, Panos A1 - Demuth, Ilja A1 - Ding, Jun A1 - Eibich, Peter A1 - Eisele, Lewin A1 - Eklund, Niina A1 - Jessica D Faul A1 - Feitosa, Mary F A1 - Andreas J Forstner A1 - Gandin, Ilaria A1 - Gunnarsson, Bjarni A1 - Halldórsson, Bjarni V A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Heath, Andrew C A1 - Hocking, Lynne J A1 - Holliday, Elizabeth G A1 - Homuth, Georg A1 - Horan, Michael A A1 - Jouke-Jan Hottenga A1 - Philip L. De Jager A1 - Joshi, Peter K A1 - Jugessur, Astanand A1 - Marika A Kaakinen A1 - Kähönen, Mika A1 - Kanoni, Stavroula A1 - Keltigangas-Järvinen, Liisa A1 - Lambertus A Kiemeney A1 - Kolcic, Ivana A1 - Koskinen, Seppo A1 - Kraja, Aldi T A1 - Kroh, Martin A1 - Kutalik, Zoltán A1 - Latvala, Antti A1 - Lenore J Launer A1 - Lebreton, Maël P A1 - Douglas F Levinson A1 - Paul Lichtenstein A1 - Lichtner, Peter A1 - David C Liewald A1 - Loukola, Anu A1 - Pamela A F Madden A1 - Mägi, Reedik A1 - Mäki-Opas, Tomi A1 - Riccardo E Marioni A1 - Marques-Vidal, Pedro A1 - Meddens, Gerardus A A1 - McMahon, George A1 - Meisinger, Christa A1 - Meitinger, Thomas A1 - Milaneschi, Yusplitri A1 - Lili Milani A1 - Grant W Montgomery A1 - Myhre, Ronny A1 - Nelson, Christopher P A1 - Nyholt, Dale R A1 - William E R Ollier A1 - Aarno Palotie A1 - Paternoster, Lavinia A1 - Nancy L Pedersen A1 - Petrovic, Katja E A1 - David J Porteous A1 - Katri Räikkönen A1 - Ring, Susan M A1 - Robino, Antonietta A1 - Rostapshova, Olga A1 - Rudan, Igor A1 - Rustichini, Aldo A1 - Veikko Salomaa A1 - Sanders, Alan R A1 - Sarin, Antti-Pekka A1 - Schmidt, Helena A1 - Rodney J Scott A1 - Smith, Blair H A1 - Jennifer A Smith A1 - Staessen, Jan A A1 - Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth A1 - Strauch, Konstantin A1 - Antonio Terracciano A1 - Tobin, Martin D A1 - Ulivi, Sheila A1 - Vaccargiu, Simona A1 - Quaye, Lydia A1 - van Rooij, Frank J A A1 - Venturini, Cristina A1 - Anna A E Vinkhuyzen A1 - Völker, Uwe A1 - Völzke, Henry A1 - Vonk, Judith M A1 - Vozzi, Diego A1 - Waage, Johannes A1 - Erin B Ware A1 - Gonneke Willemsen A1 - John R. Attia A1 - David A Bennett A1 - Klaus Berger A1 - Bertram, Lars A1 - Bisgaard, Hans A1 - Dorret I Boomsma A1 - Ingrid B Borecki A1 - Bültmann, Ute A1 - Chabris, Christopher F A1 - Francesco Cucca A1 - Cusi, Daniele A1 - Ian J Deary A1 - George Dedoussis A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Johan G. Eriksson A1 - Franke, Barbara A1 - Lude L Franke A1 - Paolo P. Gasparini A1 - Gejman, Pablo V A1 - Gieger, Christian A1 - Grabe, Hans-Jörgen A1 - Gratten, Jacob A1 - Groenen, Patrick J F A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - van der Harst, Pim A1 - Caroline Hayward A1 - Hinds, David A A1 - Hoffmann, Wolfgang A1 - Hyppönen, Elina A1 - Iacono, William G A1 - Jacobsson, Bo A1 - Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta A1 - Jöckel, Karl-Heinz A1 - Kaprio, Jaakko A1 - Sharon L R Kardia A1 - Lehtimäki, Terho A1 - Lehrer, Steven F A1 - Patrik K E Magnusson A1 - Nicholas G Martin A1 - McGue, Matt A1 - Andres Metspalu A1 - Pendleton, Neil A1 - Brenda W J H Penninx A1 - Markus Perola A1 - Nicola N Pirastu A1 - Pirastu, Mario A1 - Polasek, Ozren A1 - Posthuma, Danielle A1 - Power, Christine A1 - Province, Michael A A1 - Nilesh J Samani A1 - Schlessinger, David A1 - Schmidt, Reinhold A1 - Thorkild I. A. Sørensen A1 - Tim D Spector A1 - Stefansson, Kari A1 - Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A1 - A. Roy Thurik A1 - Nicholas J Timpson A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - Tung, Joyce Y A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Vitart, Veronique A1 - Vollenweider, Peter A1 - David R Weir A1 - James F Wilson A1 - Alan F Wright A1 - Dalton C Conley A1 - Krueger, Robert F A1 - George Davey Smith A1 - Hofman, Albert A1 - David I Laibson A1 - Sarah E Medland A1 - Meyer, Michelle N A1 - Yang, Jian A1 - Johannesson, Magnus A1 - Peter M Visscher A1 - Tõnu Esko A1 - Philipp D Koellinger A1 - Cesarini, David A1 - Daniel J. Benjamin KW - Alzheimer's disease KW - Bipolar Disorder KW - Cognitive Ability KW - Education KW - Fetus KW - Genome-Wide Association Study KW - Humans KW - Molecular Sequence Annotation KW - Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide KW - Schizophrenia KW - United Kingdom AB -Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.

VL - 533 IS - 7604 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225129?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations. JF - Nature Y1 - 2015 A1 - Joshi, Peter K A1 - Tõnu Esko A1 - Mattsson, Hannele A1 - Eklund, Niina A1 - Gandin, Ilaria A1 - Nutile, Teresa A1 - Jackson, Anne U A1 - Schurmann, Claudia A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Zhang, Weihua A1 - Okada, Yukinori A1 - Stančáková, Alena A1 - Jessica D Faul A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Bartz, Traci M A1 - Maria Pina Concas A1 - Franceschini, Nora A1 - Enroth, Stefan A1 - Vitart, Veronique A1 - Trompet, Stella A1 - Guo, Xiuqing A1 - Chasman, Daniel I A1 - O'Connel, Jeffrey R A1 - Corre, Tanguy A1 - Nongmaithem, Suraj S A1 - Chen, Yuning A1 - Mangino, Massimo A1 - Ruggiero, Daniela A1 - Traglia, Michela A1 - Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni A1 - Kacprowski, Tim A1 - Bjonnes, Andrew A1 - van der Spek, Ashley A1 - Wu, Ying A1 - Giri, Anil K A1 - Yanek, Lisa R A1 - Wang, Lihua A1 - Edith Hofer A1 - Cornelius A Rietveld A1 - McLeod, Olga A1 - Marilyn C Cornelis A1 - Pattaro, Cristian A1 - Verweij, Niek A1 - Baumbach, Clemens A1 - Abdel Abdellaoui A1 - Warren, Helen R A1 - Vuckovic, Dragana A1 - Mei, Hao A1 - Bouchard, Claude A1 - Perry, John R B A1 - Cappellani, Stefania A1 - Saira S Mirza A1 - Benton, Miles C A1 - Broeckel, Ulrich A1 - Sarah E Medland A1 - Penelope A Lind A1 - Malerba, Giovanni A1 - Alexander W Drong A1 - Yengo, Loic A1 - Bielak, Lawrence F A1 - Zhi, Degui A1 - van der Most, Peter J A1 - Shriner, Daniel A1 - Mägi, Reedik A1 - Hemani, Gibran A1 - Karaderi, Tugce A1 - Wang, Zhaoming A1 - Tian Liu A1 - Demuth, Ilja A1 - Jing Hua Zhao A1 - Meng, Weihua A1 - Lataniotis, Lazaros A1 - van der Laan, Sander W A1 - Bradfield, Jonathan P A1 - Andrew R Wood A1 - Bonnefond, Amelie A1 - Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S A1 - Hall, Leanne M A1 - Salvi, Erika A1 - Yazar, Seyhan A1 - Carstensen, Lisbeth A1 - de Haan, Hugoline G A1 - Abney, Mark A1 - Afzal, Uzma A1 - Matthew A. Allison A1 - Amin, Najaf A1 - Asselbergs, Folkert W A1 - Bakker, Stephan J L A1 - Barr, R Graham A1 - Baumeister, Sebastian E A1 - Daniel J. Benjamin A1 - Bergmann, Sven A1 - Boerwinkle, Eric A1 - Erwin P Bottinger A1 - Campbell, Archie A1 - Chakravarti, Aravinda A1 - Chan, Yingleong A1 - Chanock, Stephen J A1 - Chen, Constance A1 - Yii-Der I Chen A1 - Collins, Francis S A1 - Connell, John A1 - Correa, Adolfo A1 - Cupples, L Adrienne A1 - Gail Davies A1 - Dörr, Marcus A1 - Georg B Ehret A1 - Ellis, Stephen B A1 - Feenstra, Bjarke A1 - Feitosa, Mary F A1 - Ford, Ian A1 - Fox, Caroline S A1 - Timothy M Frayling A1 - Friedrich, Nele A1 - Geller, Frank A1 - Scotland, Generation A1 - Gillham-Nasenya, Irina A1 - Gottesman, Omri A1 - Graff, Misa A1 - Grodstein, Francine A1 - Gu, Charles A1 - Haley, Chris A1 - Hammond, Christopher J A1 - Sarah E Harris A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Nicholas D Hastie A1 - Heard-Costa, Nancy L A1 - Heikkilä, Kauko A1 - Hocking, Lynne J A1 - Homuth, Georg A1 - Jouke-Jan Hottenga A1 - Huang, Jinyan A1 - Huffman, Jennifer E A1 - Hysi, Pirro G A1 - Mohammed Arfan Ikram A1 - Ingelsson, Erik A1 - Joensuu, Anni A1 - Johansson, Åsa A1 - Jousilahti, Pekka A1 - Jukema, J Wouter A1 - Kähönen, Mika A1 - Kamatani, Yoichiro A1 - Kanoni, Stavroula A1 - Kerr, Shona M A1 - Khan, Nazir M A1 - Philipp D Koellinger A1 - Koistinen, Heikki A A1 - Kooner, Manraj K A1 - Kubo, Michiaki A1 - Kuusisto, Johanna A1 - Lahti, Jari A1 - Lenore J Launer A1 - Lea, Rodney A A1 - Lehne, Benjamin A1 - Lehtimäki, Terho A1 - David C Liewald A1 - Lars Lind A1 - Loh, Marie A1 - Lokki, Marja-Liisa A1 - London, Stephanie J A1 - Loomis, Stephanie J A1 - Loukola, Anu A1 - Lu, Yingchang A1 - Lumley, Thomas A1 - Lundqvist, Annamari A1 - Männistö, Satu A1 - Marques-Vidal, Pedro A1 - Masciullo, Corrado A1 - Matchan, Angela A1 - Mathias, Rasika A A1 - Matsuda, Koichi A1 - Meigs, James B A1 - Meisinger, Christa A1 - Meitinger, Thomas A1 - Menni, Cristina A1 - Mentch, Frank D A1 - Mihailov, Evelin A1 - Lili Milani A1 - Montasser, May E A1 - Grant W Montgomery A1 - Alanna C Morrison A1 - Myers, Richard H A1 - Nadukuru, Rajiv A1 - Navarro, Pau A1 - Nelis, Mari A1 - Nieminen, Markku S A1 - Ilja M Nolte A1 - O'Connor, George T A1 - Ogunniyi, Adesola A1 - Padmanabhan, Sandosh A1 - Walter R Palmas A1 - Pankow, James S A1 - Patarcic, Inga A1 - Pavani, Francesca A1 - Peyser, Patricia A A1 - Pietilainen, Kirsi A1 - Poulter, Neil A1 - Prokopenko, Inga A1 - Ralhan, Sarju A1 - Redmond, Paul A1 - Rich, Stephen S A1 - Rissanen, Harri A1 - Robino, Antonietta A1 - Rose, Lynda M A1 - Rose, Richard A1 - Cinzia Felicita Sala A1 - Salako, Babatunde A1 - Veikko Salomaa A1 - Sarin, Antti-Pekka A1 - Saxena, Richa A1 - Schmidt, Helena A1 - Scott, Laura J A1 - Scott, William R A1 - Sennblad, Bengt A1 - Seshadri, Sudha A1 - Sever, Peter A1 - Shrestha, Smeeta A1 - Smith, Blair H A1 - Jennifer A Smith A1 - Soranzo, Nicole A1 - Sotoodehnia, Nona A1 - Southam, Lorraine A1 - Stanton, Alice V A1 - Stathopoulou, Maria G A1 - Strauch, Konstantin A1 - Strawbridge, Rona J A1 - Suderman, Matthew J A1 - Tandon, Nikhil A1 - Tang, Sian-Tsun A1 - Kent D Taylor A1 - Bamidele O Tayo A1 - Töglhofer, Anna Maria A1 - Tomaszewski, Maciej A1 - Tšernikova, Natalia A1 - Tuomilehto, Jaakko A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Vaidya, Dhananjay A1 - van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid A1 - van Setten, Jessica A1 - Vasankari, Tuula A1 - Vedantam, Sailaja A1 - Vlachopoulou, Efthymia A1 - Vozzi, Diego A1 - Vuoksimaa, Eero A1 - Waldenberger, Melanie A1 - Erin B Ware A1 - Wentworth-Shields, William A1 - Whitfield, John B A1 - Sarah Wild A1 - Gonneke Willemsen A1 - Yajnik, Chittaranjan S A1 - Yao, Jie A1 - Zaza, Gianluigi A1 - Zhu, Xiaofeng A1 - Salem, Rany M A1 - Melbye, Mads A1 - Bisgaard, Hans A1 - Nilesh J Samani A1 - Cusi, Daniele A1 - Mackey, David A A1 - Cooper, Richard S A1 - Froguel, Philippe A1 - Pasterkamp, Gerard A1 - Grant, Struan F A A1 - Hakonarson, Hakon A1 - Luigi Ferrucci A1 - Scott, Robert A A1 - Morris, Andrew D A1 - Palmer, Colin N A A1 - George Dedoussis A1 - Deloukas, Panos A1 - Bertram, Lars A1 - Lindenberger, Ulman A1 - Berndt, Sonja I A1 - Lindgren, Cecilia M A1 - Nicholas J Timpson A1 - Tönjes, Anke A1 - Munroe, Patricia B A1 - Thorkild I. A. Sørensen A1 - Rotimi, Charles N A1 - Donna K. Arnett A1 - Oldehinkel, Albertine J A1 - Sharon L R Kardia A1 - Balkau, Beverley A1 - Gambaro, Giovanni A1 - Morris, Andrew P A1 - Johan G. Eriksson A1 - Margaret J Wright A1 - Nicholas G Martin A1 - Hunt, Steven C A1 - John M Starr A1 - Ian J Deary A1 - Griffiths, Lyn R A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - Nicola N Pirastu A1 - Kaprio, Jaakko A1 - Wareham, Nicholas J A1 - Pérusse, Louis A1 - Wilson, James G A1 - Giorgia G Girotto A1 - Caulfield, Mark J A1 - Olli T Raitakari A1 - Dorret I Boomsma A1 - Gieger, Christian A1 - van der Harst, Pim A1 - Hicks, Andrew A A1 - Kraft, Peter A1 - Sinisalo, Juha A1 - Knekt, Paul A1 - Johannesson, Magnus A1 - Patrik K E Magnusson A1 - Hamsten, Anders A1 - Schmidt, Reinhold A1 - Ingrid B Borecki A1 - Vartiainen, Erkki A1 - Becker, Diane M A1 - Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan A1 - Mohlke, Karen L A1 - Boehnke, Michael A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Sanghera, Dharambir K A1 - Teumer, Alexander A1 - Zeggini, Eleftheria A1 - Andres Metspalu A1 - Paolo P. Gasparini A1 - Ulivi, Sheila A1 - Ober, Carole A1 - Toniolo, Daniela A1 - Rudan, Igor A1 - David J Porteous A1 - Ciullo, Marina A1 - Tim D Spector A1 - Caroline Hayward A1 - Dupuis, Josée A1 - Ruth J F Loos A1 - Alan F Wright A1 - Chandak, Giriraj R A1 - Vollenweider, Peter A1 - Alan R Shuldiner A1 - Ridker, Paul M A1 - Rotter, Jerome I A1 - Sattar, Naveed A1 - Gyllensten, Ulf A1 - North, Kari E A1 - Pirastu, Mario A1 - Psaty, Bruce M A1 - David R Weir A1 - Laakso, Markku A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - Takahashi, Atsushi A1 - Chambers, John C A1 - Kooner, Jaspal S A1 - Strachan, David P A1 - Campbell, Harry A1 - Joel N Hirschhron A1 - Markus Perola A1 - Polasek, Ozren A1 - James F Wilson KW - Biological Evolution KW - Blood pressure KW - Body Height KW - Cholesterol KW - Cognitive Ability KW - Cohort Studies KW - Education KW - Female KW - Forced Expiratory Volume KW - Genome KW - Homozygote KW - Humans KW - Lung Volume Measurements KW - Male KW - Phenotype AB -Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less well understood. Genomic data now allow us to investigate the effects of homozygosity on traits of public health importance by observing contiguous homozygous segments (runs of homozygosity), which are inferred to be homozygous along their complete length. Given the low levels of genome-wide homozygosity prevalent in most human populations, information is required on very large numbers of people to provide sufficient power. Here we use runs of homozygosity to study 16 health-related quantitative traits in 354,224 individuals from 102 cohorts, and find statistically significant associations between summed runs of homozygosity and four complex traits: height, forced expiratory lung volume in one second, general cognitive ability and educational attainment (P < 1 × 10(-300), 2.1 × 10(-6), 2.5 × 10(-10) and 1.8 × 10(-10), respectively). In each case, increased homozygosity was associated with decreased trait value, equivalent to the offspring of first cousins being 1.2 cm shorter and having 10 months' less education. Similar effect sizes were found across four continental groups and populations with different degrees of genome-wide homozygosity, providing evidence that homozygosity, rather than confounding, directly contributes to phenotypic variance. Contrary to earlier reports in substantially smaller samples, no evidence was seen of an influence of genome-wide homozygosity on blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or ten other cardio-metabolic traits. Since directional dominance is predicted for traits under directional evolutionary selection, this study provides evidence that increased stature and cognitive function have been positively selected in human evolution, whereas many important risk factors for late-onset complex diseases may not have been.

VL - 523 IS - 7561 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26131930?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance identified using the proxy-phenotype method. JF - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A Y1 - 2014 A1 - Cornelius A Rietveld A1 - Tõnu Esko A1 - Gail Davies A1 - Pers, Tune H A1 - Turley, Patrick A1 - Benyamin, Beben A1 - Chabris, Christopher F A1 - Emilsson, Valur A1 - Andrew D Johnson A1 - Lee, James J A1 - Christiaan de Leeuw A1 - Riccardo E Marioni A1 - Sarah E Medland A1 - Michael B Miller A1 - Rostapshova, Olga A1 - Sven J van der Lee A1 - Anna A E Vinkhuyzen A1 - Amin, Najaf A1 - Dalton C Conley A1 - Derringer, Jaime A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Fehrmann, Rudolf A1 - Lude L Franke A1 - Edward L Glaeser A1 - Narelle K Hansell A1 - Caroline Hayward A1 - Iacono, William G A1 - Carla A Ibrahim-Verbaas A1 - Vincent Jaddoe A1 - Karjalainen, Juha A1 - David I Laibson A1 - Paul Lichtenstein A1 - David C Liewald A1 - Patrik K E Magnusson A1 - Nicholas G Martin A1 - McGue, Matt A1 - McMahon, George A1 - Nancy L Pedersen A1 - Pinker, Steven A1 - David J Porteous A1 - Posthuma, Danielle A1 - Fernando Rivadeneira A1 - Smith, Blair H A1 - John M Starr A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - Nicholas J Timpson A1 - Trzaskowski, Maciej A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Verhulst, Frank C A1 - Mary E Ward A1 - Margaret J Wright A1 - George Davey Smith A1 - Ian J Deary A1 - Johannesson, Magnus A1 - Plomin, Robert A1 - Peter M Visscher A1 - Daniel J. Benjamin A1 - Cesarini, David A1 - Philipp D Koellinger KW - Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal KW - Cognition KW - Female KW - Humans KW - Learning KW - Male KW - Memory KW - Multifactorial Inheritance KW - Nerve Tissue Proteins KW - Neuronal Plasticity KW - Octamer Transcription Factors KW - Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide KW - Synaptic Transmission AB -We identify common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance using a two-stage approach, which we call the proxy-phenotype method. First, we conduct a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in a large sample (n = 106,736), which produces a set of 69 education-associated SNPs. Second, using independent samples (n = 24,189), we measure the association of these education-associated SNPs with cognitive performance. Three SNPs (rs1487441, rs7923609, and rs2721173) are significantly associated with cognitive performance after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. In an independent sample of older Americans (n = 8,652), we also show that a polygenic score derived from the education-associated SNPs is associated with memory and absence of dementia. Convergent evidence from a set of bioinformatics analyses implicates four specific genes (KNCMA1, NRXN1, POU2F3, and SCRT). All of these genes are associated with a particular neurotransmitter pathway involved in synaptic plasticity, the main cellular mechanism for learning and memory.

VL - 111 IS - 38 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25201988?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Genetic variation associated with differential educational attainment in adults has anticipated associations with school performance in children. JF - PLoS One Y1 - 2014 A1 - Mary E Ward A1 - McMahon, George A1 - St Pourcain, Beate A1 - Cornelius A Rietveld A1 - Daniel J. Benjamin A1 - Philipp D Koellinger A1 - Cesarini, David A1 - Nicholas J Timpson ED - Yun Li KW - Adolescent KW - Adult KW - Child KW - Child, Preschool KW - Educational Status KW - Female KW - Genetic Association Studies KW - Genome-Wide Association Study KW - Humans KW - Intelligence KW - Intelligence Tests KW - Learning KW - Longitudinal Studies KW - Male KW - Mathematics KW - Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide AB -Genome-wide association study results have yielded evidence for the association of common genetic variants with crude measures of completed educational attainment in adults. Whilst informative, these results do not inform as to the mechanism of these effects or their presence at earlier ages and where educational performance is more routinely and more precisely assessed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms exhibiting genome-wide significant associations with adult educational attainment were combined to derive an unweighted allele score in 5,979 and 6,145 young participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children with key stage 3 national curriculum test results (SATS results) available at age 13 to 14 years in English and mathematics respectively. Standardised (z-scored) results for English and mathematics showed an expected relationship with sex, with girls exhibiting an advantage over boys in English (0.433 SD (95%CI 0.395, 0.470), p<10(-10)) with more similar results (though in the opposite direction) in mathematics (0.042 SD (95%CI 0.004, 0.080), p = 0.030). Each additional adult educational attainment increasing allele was associated with 0.041 SD (95%CI 0.020, 0.063), p = 1.79×10(-04) and 0.028 SD (95%CI 0.007, 0.050), p = 0.01 increases in standardised SATS score for English and mathematics respectively. Educational attainment is a complex multifactorial behavioural trait which has not had heritable contributions to it fully characterised. We were able to apply the results from a large study of adult educational attainment to a study of child exam performance marking events in the process of learning rather than realised adult end product. Our results support evidence for common, small genetic contributions to educational attainment, but also emphasise the likely lifecourse nature of this genetic effect. Results here also, by an alternative route, suggest that existing methods for child examination are able to recognise early life variation likely to be related to ultimate educational attainment.

VL - 9 UR - http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0100248 IS - 7 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25032841?dopt=Abstract JO - PLoS ONE ER - TY - JOUR T1 - GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment. JF - Science Y1 - 2013 A1 - Cornelius A Rietveld A1 - Sarah E Medland A1 - Derringer, Jaime A1 - Yang, Jian A1 - Tõnu Esko A1 - Martin, Nicolas W A1 - Westra, Harm-Jan A1 - Shakhbazov, Konstantin A1 - Abdel Abdellaoui A1 - Agrawal, Arpana A1 - Albrecht, Eva A1 - Alizadeh, Behrooz Z A1 - Amin, Najaf A1 - Barnard, John A1 - Baumeister, Sebastian E A1 - Benke, Kelly S A1 - Bielak, Lawrence F A1 - Boatman, Jeffrey A A1 - Patricia A. Boyle A1 - Gail Davies A1 - Christiaan de Leeuw A1 - Eklund, Niina A1 - Daniel S Evans A1 - Rudolf Ferhmann A1 - Fischer, Krista A1 - Gieger, Christian A1 - Gjessing, Håkon K A1 - Hägg, Sara A1 - Harris, Jennifer R A1 - Caroline Hayward A1 - Holzapfel, Christina A1 - Carla A Ibrahim-Verbaas A1 - Ingelsson, Erik A1 - Jacobsson, Bo A1 - Joshi, Peter K A1 - Jugessur, Astanand A1 - Marika A Kaakinen A1 - Kanoni, Stavroula A1 - Karjalainen, Juha A1 - Kolcic, Ivana A1 - Kristiansson, Kati A1 - Kutalik, Zoltán A1 - J. Lahti A1 - Lee, Sang H A1 - Lin, Peng A1 - Penelope A Lind A1 - Yongmei Liu A1 - Lohman, Kurt A1 - Loitfelder, Marisa A1 - McMahon, George A1 - Vidal, Pedro Marques A1 - Osorio Meirelles A1 - Lili Milani A1 - Myhre, Ronny A1 - Nuotio, Marja-Liisa A1 - Christopher J Oldmeadow A1 - Petrovic, Katja E A1 - Wouter J Peyrot A1 - Polasek, Ozren A1 - Quaye, Lydia A1 - Reinmaa, Eva A1 - Rice, John P A1 - Rizzi, Thais S A1 - Schmidt, Helena A1 - Schmidt, Reinhold A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Jennifer A Smith A1 - Toshiko Tanaka A1 - Antonio Terracciano A1 - van der Loos, Matthijs J H M A1 - Vitart, Veronique A1 - Völzke, Henry A1 - Jürgen Wellmann A1 - Lei Yu A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Allik, Jüri A1 - John R. Attia A1 - Bandinelli, Stefania A1 - Bastardot, François A1 - Jonathan P. Beauchamp A1 - David A Bennett A1 - Klaus Berger A1 - Bierut, Laura J A1 - Dorret I Boomsma A1 - Bültmann, Ute A1 - Campbell, Harry A1 - Chabris, Christopher F A1 - Cherkas, Lynn A1 - Chung, Mina K A1 - Francesco Cucca A1 - de Andrade, Mariza A1 - Philip L. De Jager A1 - De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel A1 - Ian J Deary A1 - George Dedoussis A1 - Deloukas, Panos A1 - Dimitriou, Maria A1 - Guðny Eiríksdóttir A1 - Elderson, Martin F A1 - Johan G. Eriksson A1 - Jessica D Faul A1 - Luigi Ferrucci A1 - Melissa E Garcia A1 - Grönberg, Henrik A1 - Guðnason, Vilmundur A1 - Hall, Per A1 - Harris, Juliette M A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Nicholas D Hastie A1 - Heath, Andrew C A1 - Dena G Hernandez A1 - Hoffmann, Wolfgang A1 - Hofman, Adriaan A1 - Holle, Rolf A1 - Holliday, Elizabeth G A1 - Jouke-Jan Hottenga A1 - Iacono, William G A1 - Illig, Thomas A1 - Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta A1 - Kähönen, Mika A1 - Kaprio, Jaakko A1 - Kirkpatrick, Robert M A1 - Kowgier, Matthew A1 - Latvala, Antti A1 - Lenore J Launer A1 - Lawlor, Debbie A A1 - Lehtimäki, Terho A1 - Li, Jingmei A1 - Paul Lichtenstein A1 - Lichtner, Peter A1 - David C Liewald A1 - Pamela A F Madden A1 - Patrik K E Magnusson A1 - Mäkinen, Tomi E A1 - Masala, Marco A1 - McGue, Matt A1 - Andres Metspalu A1 - Mielck, Andreas A1 - Michael B Miller A1 - Grant W Montgomery A1 - Mukherjee, Sutapa A1 - Nyholt, Dale R A1 - Ben A Oostra A1 - Palmer, Lyle J A1 - Aarno Palotie A1 - Brenda W J H Penninx A1 - Markus Perola A1 - Peyser, Patricia A A1 - Preisig, Martin A1 - Katri Räikkönen A1 - Olli T Raitakari A1 - Realo, Anu A1 - Ring, Susan M A1 - Ripatti, Samuli A1 - Fernando Rivadeneira A1 - Rudan, Igor A1 - Rustichini, Aldo A1 - Veikko Salomaa A1 - Sarin, Antti-Pekka A1 - Schlessinger, David A1 - Rodney J Scott A1 - Snieder, Harold A1 - St Pourcain, Beate A1 - John M Starr A1 - Sul, Jae Hoon A1 - Surakka, Ida A1 - Svento, Rauli A1 - Teumer, Alexander A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - van Rooij, Frank J A A1 - Van Wagoner, David R A1 - Vartiainen, Erkki A1 - Viikari, Jorma A1 - Vollenweider, Peter A1 - Vonk, Judith M A1 - Waeber, Gérard A1 - David R Weir A1 - Wichmann, H-Erich A1 - Elisabeth Widen A1 - Gonneke Willemsen A1 - James F Wilson A1 - Alan F Wright A1 - Dalton C Conley A1 - Davey-Smith, George A1 - Lude L Franke A1 - Groenen, Patrick J F A1 - Hofman, Albert A1 - Johannesson, Magnus A1 - Sharon L R Kardia A1 - Krueger, Robert F A1 - David I Laibson A1 - Nicholas G Martin A1 - Meyer, Michelle N A1 - Posthuma, Danielle A1 - A. Roy Thurik A1 - Nicholas J Timpson A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Peter M Visscher A1 - Daniel J. Benjamin A1 - Cesarini, David A1 - Philipp D Koellinger KW - Cognition KW - Educational Status KW - Endophenotypes KW - Female KW - Genetic Loci KW - Genome-Wide Association Study KW - Humans KW - Male KW - Multifactorial Inheritance KW - Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide AB -A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R(2) ≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.

VL - 340 IS - 6139 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23722424?dopt=Abstract ER -