Very few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted genome-wide association studies of three phenotypes: subjective well-being (n = 298,420), depressive symptoms (n = 161,460), and neuroticism (n = 170,911). We identify 3 variants associated with subjective well-being, 2 variants associated with depressive symptoms, and 11 variants associated with neuroticism, including 2 inversion polymorphisms. The two loci associated with depressive symptoms replicate in an independent depression sample. Joint analyses that exploit the high genetic correlations between the phenotypes (|ρ^| ≈ 0.8) strengthen the overall credibility of the findings and allow us to identify additional variants. Across our phenotypes, loci regulating expression in central nervous system and adrenal or pancreas tissues are strongly enriched for association.

VL - 48 IS - 6 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior. JF - Nat Genet Y1 - 2016 A1 - Nicola Barban A1 - Jansen, Rick A1 - de Vlaming, Ronald A1 - Vaez, Ahmad A1 - Mandemakers, Jornt J A1 - Felix C Tropf A1 - Shen, Xia A1 - Wilson, James F A1 - Chasman, Daniel I A1 - Nolte, Ilja M A1 - Tragante, Vinicius A1 - van der Laan, Sander W A1 - Perry, John R B A1 - Kong, Augustine A1 - Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S A1 - Albrecht, Eva A1 - Laura Yerges-Armstrong A1 - Atzmon, Gil A1 - Auro, Kirsi A1 - Ayers, Kristin A1 - Bakshi, Andrew A1 - Ben-Avraham, Danny A1 - Berger, Klaus A1 - Bergman, Aviv A1 - Bertram, Lars A1 - Bielak, Lawrence F A1 - Bjornsdottir, Gyda A1 - Bonder, Marc Jan A1 - Broer, Linda A1 - Bui, Minh A1 - Barbieri, Caterina A1 - Cavadino, Alana A1 - Chavarro, Jorge E A1 - Turman, Constance A1 - Maria Pina Concas A1 - Cordell, Heather J A1 - Gail Davies A1 - Eibich, Peter A1 - Eriksson, Nicholas A1 - Tõnu Esko A1 - Eriksson, Joel A1 - Falahi, Fahimeh A1 - Felix, Janine F A1 - Mark A Fontana A1 - Lude L. Franke A1 - Gandin, Ilaria A1 - Gaskins, Audrey J A1 - Gieger, Christian A1 - Gunderson, Erica P A1 - Guo, Xiuqing A1 - Hayward, Caroline A1 - He, Chunyan A1 - Hofer, Edith A1 - Huang, Hongyan A1 - Joshi, Peter K A1 - Kanoni, Stavroula A1 - Karlsson, Robert A1 - Kiechl, Stefan A1 - Kifley, Annette A1 - Kluttig, Alexander A1 - Kraft, Peter A1 - Lagou, Vasiliki A1 - Lecoeur, Cecile A1 - Lahti, Jari A1 - Li-Gao, Ruifang A1 - Penelope A. Lind A1 - Liu, Tian A1 - Makalic, Enes A1 - Mamasoula, Crysovalanto A1 - Lindsay Matteson A1 - Mbarek, Hamdi A1 - McArdle, Patrick F A1 - McMahon, George A1 - Meddens, S Fleur W A1 - Mihailov, Evelin A1 - Mike Miller A1 - Missmer, Stacey A A1 - Monnereau, Claire A1 - van der Most, Peter J A1 - Myhre, Ronny A1 - Mike A Nalls A1 - Nutile, Teresa A1 - Ioanna Panagiota Kalafati A1 - Porcu, Eleonora A1 - Prokopenko, Inga A1 - Rajan, Kumar B A1 - Rich-Edwards, Janet A1 - Cornelius A Rietveld A1 - Robino, Antonietta A1 - Rose, Lynda M A1 - Rueedi, Rico A1 - Ryan, Kathleen A A1 - Saba, Yasaman A1 - Schmidt, Daniel A1 - Jennifer A. Smith A1 - Stolk, Lisette A1 - Streeten, Elizabeth A1 - Tönjes, Anke A1 - Thorleifsson, Gudmar A1 - Ulivi, Sheila A1 - Wedenoja, Juho A1 - Wellmann, Juergen A1 - Willeit, Peter A1 - Yao, Jie A1 - Yengo, Loic A1 - Jing Hua Zhao A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Zhernakova, Daria V A1 - Amin, Najaf A1 - Andrews, Howard A1 - Balkau, Beverley A1 - Barzilai, Nir A1 - Bergmann, Sven A1 - Biino, Ginevra A1 - Bisgaard, Hans A1 - Bønnelykke, Klaus A1 - Dorret I. Boomsma A1 - Buring, Julie E A1 - Campbell, Harry A1 - Cappellani, Stefania A1 - Ciullo, Marina A1 - Cox, Simon R A1 - Francesco Cucca A1 - Toniolo, Daniela A1 - Davey-Smith, George A1 - Ian J Deary A1 - George Dedoussis A1 - Deloukas, Panos A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Eco J C de Geus A1 - Johan G Eriksson A1 - Jessica D. Faul A1 - Cinzia Sala A1 - Froguel, Philippe A1 - Paolo Gasparini A1 - Giorgia Girotto A1 - Grabe, Hans-Jörgen A1 - Greiser, Karin Halina A1 - Groenen, Patrick J F A1 - de Haan, Hugoline G A1 - Haerting, Johannes A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Heath, Andrew C A1 - Heikkilä, Kauko A1 - Hofman, Albert A1 - Homuth, Georg A1 - Holliday, Elizabeth G A1 - John L Hopper A1 - Hyppönen, Elina A1 - Jacobsson, Bo A1 - Jaddoe, Vincent W V A1 - Johannesson, Magnus A1 - Jugessur, Astanand A1 - Kähönen, Mika A1 - Kajantie, Eero A1 - Sharon L. R. Kardia A1 - Keavney, Bernard A1 - Kolcic, Ivana A1 - Koponen, Päivikki A1 - Kovacs, Peter A1 - Kronenberg, Florian A1 - Kutalik, Zoltán A1 - La Bianca, Martina A1 - Lachance, Genevieve A1 - Iacono, William G A1 - Lai, Sandra A1 - Lehtimäki, Terho A1 - David C Liewald A1 - Lindgren, Cecilia M A1 - Liu, Yongmei A1 - Luben, Robert A1 - Lucht, Michael A1 - Luoto, Riitta A1 - Magnus, Per A1 - Patrik K E Magnusson A1 - Nicholas G Martin A1 - McGue, Matt A1 - McQuillan, Ruth A1 - Sarah E. Medland A1 - Meisinger, Christa A1 - Mellström, Dan A1 - Andres Metspalu A1 - Traglia, Michela A1 - Lili Milani A1 - Mitchell, Paul A1 - Grant W. Montgomery A1 - Dennis O Mook-Kanamori A1 - de Mutsert, Renée A1 - Nohr, Ellen A A1 - Ohlsson, Claes A1 - Olsen, Jørn A1 - Ong, Ken K A1 - Paternoster, Lavinia A1 - Pattie, Alison A1 - Brenda W Penninx A1 - Markus Perola A1 - Peyser, Patricia A A1 - Pirastu, Mario A1 - Polasek, Ozren A1 - Power, Chris A1 - Kaprio, Jaakko A1 - Raffel, Leslie J A1 - Katri Räikkönen A1 - Olli T Raitakari A1 - Ridker, Paul M A1 - Ring, Susan M A1 - Roll, Kathryn A1 - Rudan, Igor A1 - Ruggiero, Daniela A1 - Rujescu, Dan A1 - Veikko Salomaa A1 - Schlessinger, David A1 - Schmidt, Helena A1 - Schmidt, Reinhold A1 - Schupf, Nicole A1 - Johannes Smit A1 - Sorice, Rossella A1 - Tim D Spector A1 - John M Starr A1 - Stöckl, Doris A1 - Strauch, Konstantin A1 - Stumvoll, Michael A1 - Swertz, Morris A A1 - Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A1 - Thurik, A Roy A1 - Nicholas J. Timpson A1 - Tung, Joyce Y A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Vaccargiu, Simona A1 - Viikari, Jorma A1 - Vitart, Veronique A1 - Völzke, Henry A1 - Vollenweider, Peter A1 - Vuckovic, Dragana A1 - Waage, Johannes A1 - Wagner, Gert G A1 - Wang, Jie Jin A1 - Wareham, Nicholas J A1 - David R. Weir A1 - Gonneke Willemsen A1 - Willeit, Johann A1 - Wright, Alan F A1 - Krina T Zondervan A1 - Stefansson, Kari A1 - Krueger, Robert F A1 - Lee, James J A1 - Daniel J. Benjamin A1 - Cesarini, David A1 - Philipp Koellinger A1 - den Hoed, Marcel A1 - Snieder, Harold A1 - Melinda C Mills AB -The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior-age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)-has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlying mechanisms of AFB and NEB are poorly understood. We report a large genome-wide association study of both sexes including 251,151 individuals for AFB and 343,072 individuals for NEB. We identified 12 independent loci that are significantly associated with AFB and/or NEB in a SNP-based genome-wide association study and 4 additional loci associated in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to have a role, either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression, in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing understanding of these complex traits.

VL - 48 IS - 12 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798627?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genome-wide by environment interaction study (GWEIS) of depressive symptoms in African American and Hispanic/Latina women JF - Depression & Anxiety Y1 - 2016 A1 - Dunn, Erin C A1 - Wiste, Anna A1 - Radmanesh, Farid A1 - Almli, Lynn M A1 - Gogarten, Stephanie M A1 - Sofer, Tamar A1 - Jessica D. Faul A1 - Sharon L. R. Kardia A1 - Jennifer A. Smith A1 - David R. Weir A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Soare, Thomas W A1 - Saira S Mirza A1 - Karin Hek A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - Goveas, Joseph S A1 - Sarto, Gloria E A1 - Snively, Beverly M A1 - Marilyn Cornelis A1 - Karestan C. Koenen A1 - Kraft, Peter A1 - Purcell, Shaun A1 - Ressler, Kerry J A1 - Rosand, Jonathan A1 - Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia A1 - Smoller, Jordan W KW - Depressive symptoms KW - Environmental factors KW - Genetics KW - Humans KW - Women and Minorities AB -**BACKGROUND: **Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have made little progress in identifying variants linked to depression. We hypothesized that examining depressive symptoms and considering gene-environment interaction (GxE) might improve efficiency for gene discovery. We therefore conducted a GWAS and genome-wide by environment interaction study (GWEIS) of depressive symptoms.

**METHODS: **Using data from the SHARe cohort of the Women's Health Initiative, comprising African Americans (n = 7,179) and Hispanics/Latinas (n = 3,138), we examined genetic main effects and GxE with stressful life events and social support. We also conducted a heritability analysis using genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA). Replication was attempted in four independent cohorts.

**RESULTS: **No SNPs achieved genome-wide significance for main effects in either discovery sample. The top signals in African Americans were rs73531535 (located 20 kb from GPR139, P = 5.75 × 10(-8) ) and rs75407252 (intronic to CACNA2D3, P = 6.99 × 10(-7) ). In Hispanics/Latinas, the top signals were rs2532087 (located 27 kb from CD38, P = 2.44 × 10(-7) ) and rs4542757 (intronic to DCC, P = 7.31 × 10(-7) ). In the GEWIS with stressful life events, one interaction signal was genome-wide significant in African Americans (rs4652467; P = 4.10 × 10(-10) ; located 14 kb from CEP350). This interaction was not observed in a smaller replication cohort. Although heritability estimates for depressive symptoms and stressful life events were each less than 10%, they were strongly genetically correlated (rG = 0.95), suggesting that common variation underlying self-reported depressive symptoms and stressful life event exposure, though modest on their own, were highly overlapping in this sample.

**CONCLUSIONS: **Our results underscore the need for larger samples, more GEWIS, and greater investigation into genetic and environmental determinants of depressive symptoms in minorities.

Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.

VL - 533 IS - 7604 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225129?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - GWAS analysis of handgrip and lower body strength in older adults in the CHARGE consortium. JF - Aging Cell Y1 - 2016 A1 - Amy M Matteini A1 - Toshiko Tanaka A1 - Karasik, David A1 - Atzmon, Gil A1 - Chou, Wen-Chi A1 - John D Eicher A1 - Andrew D Johnson A1 - Alice M. Arnold A1 - Michele L. Callisaya A1 - Gail Davies A1 - Daniel S. Evans A1 - Holtfreter, Birte A1 - Lohman, Kurt A1 - Kathryn L. Lunetta A1 - Mangino, Massimo A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Jennifer A. Smith A1 - Teumer, Alexander A1 - Lei Yu A1 - Dan E Arking A1 - Aron S. Buchman A1 - Chibinik, Lori B A1 - Philip L. De Jager A1 - Jessica D. Faul A1 - Melissa E Garcia A1 - Gillham-Nasenya, Irina A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - Hofman, Albert A1 - Hsu, Yi-Hsiang A1 - Ittermann, Till A1 - Lahousse, Lies A1 - David C Liewald A1 - Liu, Yongmei A1 - Lopez, Lorna A1 - Fernando Rivadeneira A1 - Rotter, Jerome I A1 - Siggeirsdottir, Kristin A1 - John M Starr A1 - Thomson, Russell A1 - Tranah, Gregory J A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Völker, Uwe A1 - Völzke, Henry A1 - David R. Weir A1 - Kristine Yaffe A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - W V Zhuang A1 - Zmuda, Joseph M A1 - David A. Bennett A1 - Steven R Cummings A1 - Ian J Deary A1 - Luigi Ferrucci A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Sharon L. R. Kardia A1 - Kocher, Thomas A1 - Stephen B Kritchevsky A1 - Psaty, Bruce M A1 - Seshadri, Sudha A1 - Tim D Spector A1 - Velandai K Srikanth A1 - Windham, B Gwen A1 - Zillikens, M Carola A1 - Anne B Newman A1 - Jeremy D Walston A1 - Douglas P. Kiel A1 - Joanne M Murabito KW - CHARGE KW - Genetics KW - Older Adults KW - Physical Ability AB -Decline in muscle strength with aging is an important predictor of health trajectory in the elderly. Several factors, including genetics, are proposed contributors to variability in muscle strength. To identify genetic contributors to muscle strength, a meta-analysis of genomewide association studies of handgrip was conducted. Grip strength was measured using a handheld dynamometer in 27 581 individuals of European descent over 65 years of age from 14 cohort studies. Genomewide association analysis was conducted on ~2.7 million imputed and genotyped variants (SNPs). Replication of the most significant findings was conducted using data from 6393 individuals from three cohorts. GWAS of lower body strength was also characterized in a subset of cohorts. Two genomewide significant (P-value< 5 × 10(-8) ) and 39 suggestive (P-value< 5 × 10(-5) ) associations were observed from meta-analysis of the discovery cohorts. After meta-analysis with replication cohorts, genomewide significant association was observed for rs752045 on chromosome 8 (β = 0.47, SE = 0.08, P-value = 5.20 × 10(-10) ). This SNP is mapped to an intergenic region and is located within an accessible chromatin region (DNase hypersensitivity site) in skeletal muscle myotubes differentiated from the human skeletal muscle myoblasts cell line. This locus alters a binding motif of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-β (CEBPB) that is implicated in muscle repair mechanisms. GWAS of lower body strength did not yield significant results. A common genetic variant in a chromosomal region that regulates myotube differentiation and muscle repair may contribute to variability in grip strength in the elderly. Further studies are needed to uncover the mechanisms that link this genetic variant with muscle strength.

VL - 15 IS - 5 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Lifespan adversity and later adulthood telomere length in the nationally representative US Health and Retirement Study. JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Y1 - 2016 A1 - Puterman, Eli A1 - Gemmill, Alison A1 - Karasek, Deborah A1 - David R. Weir A1 - Nancy E. Adler A1 - Prather, Aric A. A1 - Epel, Elissa KW - Adversity KW - Childhood adversity KW - Older Adults KW - Telomeres KW - Trauma AB -Stress over the lifespan is thought to promote accelerated aging and early disease. Telomere length is a marker of cell aging that appears to be one mediator of this relationship. Telomere length is associated with early adversity and with chronic stressors in adulthood in many studies. Although cumulative lifespan adversity should have bigger impacts than single events, it is also possible that adversity in childhood has larger effects on later life health than adult stressors, as suggested by models of biological embedding in early life. No studies have examined the individual vs. cumulative effects of childhood and adulthood adversities on adult telomere length. Here, we examined the relationship between cumulative childhood and adulthood adversity, adding up a range of severe financial, traumatic, and social exposures, as well as comparing them to each other, in relation to salivary telomere length. We examined 4,598 men and women from the US Health and Retirement Study. Single adversities tended to have nonsignificant relations with telomere length. In adjusted models, lifetime cumulative adversity predicted 6% greater odds of shorter telomere length. This result was mainly due to childhood adversity. In adjusted models for cumulative childhood adversity, the occurrence of each additional childhood event predicted 11% increased odds of having short telomeres. This result appeared mainly because of social/traumatic exposures rather than financial exposures. This study suggests that the shadow of childhood adversity may reach far into later adulthood in part through cellular aging.

VL - 113 UR - http://www.pnas.org/content/113/42/E6335.long IS - 42 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Meta-analysis identifies common and rare variants influencing blood pressure and overlapping with metabolic trait loci. JF - Nat Genet Y1 - 2016 A1 - Liu, Chunyu A1 - Kraja, Aldi T A1 - Jennifer A. Smith A1 - Brody, Jennifer A A1 - Franceschini, Nora A1 - Joshua C. Bis A1 - Rice, Kenneth A1 - Alanna Morrison A1 - Lu, Yingchang A1 - Weiss, Stefan A1 - Guo, Xiuqing A1 - Walter Palmas A1 - Martin, Lisa W A1 - Yii-Der I Chen A1 - Surendran, Praveen A1 - Drenos, Fotios A1 - Cook, James P A1 - Auer, Paul L A1 - Chu, Audrey Y A1 - Giri, Ayush A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Jakobsdottir, Johanna A1 - Lin, Li-An A1 - Stafford, Jeanette M A1 - Amin, Najaf A1 - Mei, Hao A1 - Yao, Jie A1 - Voorman, Arend A1 - Larson, Martin G A1 - Grove, Megan L A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Hwang, Shih-Jen A1 - Chen, Han A1 - Huan, Tianxiao A1 - Kosova, Gulum A1 - Stitziel, Nathan O A1 - Kathiresan, Sekar A1 - Nilesh Samani A1 - Schunkert, Heribert A1 - Deloukas, Panos A1 - Li, Man A1 - Fuchsberger, Christian A1 - Pattaro, Cristian A1 - Gorski, Mathias A1 - Kooperberg, Charles A1 - George J. Papanicolaou A1 - Rossouw, Jacques E A1 - Jessica D. Faul A1 - Sharon L. R. Kardia A1 - Bouchard, Claude A1 - Raffel, Leslie J A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Franco, Oscar H A1 - Ramachandran S. Vasan A1 - O'Donnell, Christopher J A1 - Kent Taylor A1 - Liu, Kiang A1 - Erwin P. Bottinger A1 - Gottesman, Omri A1 - Daw, E Warwick A1 - Giulianini, Franco A1 - Ganesh, Santhi A1 - Salfati, Elias A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Lenore J Launer A1 - Dörr, Marcus A1 - Felix, Stephan B A1 - Rettig, Rainer A1 - Völzke, Henry A1 - Eric S. Kim A1 - Lee, Wen-Jane A1 - Lee, I-Te A1 - Sheu, Wayne H-H A1 - Tsosie, Krystal S A1 - Digna R Velez Edwards A1 - Liu, Yongmei A1 - Correa, Adolfo A1 - David R. Weir A1 - Völker, Uwe A1 - Ridker, Paul M A1 - Boerwinkle, Eric A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - Reiner, Alexander P A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Ingrid B. Borecki A1 - Edwards, Todd L A1 - Chakravarti, Aravinda A1 - Rotter, Jerome I A1 - Psaty, Bruce M A1 - Ruth J F Loos A1 - Myriam Fornage A1 - Georg Ehret A1 - Newton-Cheh, Christopher A1 - Levy, Daniel A1 - Chasman, Daniel I AB -Meta-analyses of association results for blood pressure using exome-centric single-variant and gene-based tests identified 31 new loci in a discovery stage among 146,562 individuals, with follow-up and meta-analysis in 180,726 additional individuals (total n = 327,288). These blood pressure-associated loci are enriched for known variants for cardiometabolic traits. Associations were also observed for the aggregation of rare and low-frequency missense variants in three genes, NPR1, DBH, and PTPMT1. In addition, blood pressure associations at 39 previously reported loci were confirmed. The identified variants implicate biological pathways related to cardiometabolic traits, vascular function, and development. Several new variants are inferred to have roles in transcription or as hubs in protein-protein interaction networks. Genetic risk scores constructed from the identified variants were strongly associated with coronary disease and myocardial infarction. This large collection of blood pressure-associated loci suggests new therapeutic strategies for hypertension, emphasizing a link with cardiometabolic risk.

VL - 48 IS - 10 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Contribution of common non-synonymous variants in PCSK1 to body mass index variation and risk of obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis with evidence from up to 331 175 individuals. JF - Human Molecular Genetics Y1 - 2015 A1 - Nead, Kevin T A1 - Li, Aihua A1 - Wehner, Mackenzie R A1 - Neupane, Binod A1 - Gustafsson, Stefan A1 - Adam S Butterworth A1 - Engert, James C A1 - Davis, A Darlene A1 - Hegele, Robert A A1 - Miller, Ruby A1 - Marcel den Hoed A1 - Khaw, Kay-Tee A1 - Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O A1 - Wareham, Nick A1 - Edwards, Todd L A1 - Hallmans, Göran A1 - Varga, Tibor V A1 - Sharon L. R. Kardia A1 - Jennifer A. Smith A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Jessica D. Faul A1 - David R. Weir A1 - Mi, Jie A1 - Xi, Bo A1 - Quinteros, Samuel Canizales A1 - Cooper, Cyrus A1 - Sayer, Avan Aihie A1 - Jameson, Karen A1 - Grøntved, Anders A1 - Myriam Fornage A1 - Sidney, Stephen A1 - Hanis, Craig L A1 - Highland, Heather M A1 - Häring, Hans-Ulrich A1 - Heni, Martin A1 - Lasky-Su, Jessica A1 - Weiss, Scott T A1 - Gerhard, Glenn S A1 - Still, Christopher A1 - Melka, Melkaey M A1 - Pausova, Zdenka A1 - Paus, Tomáš A1 - Grant, Struan F A A1 - Hakonarson, Hakon A1 - Price, R Arlen A1 - Wang, Kai A1 - Scherag, Andre A1 - Hebebrand, Johannes A1 - Hinney, Anke A1 - Franks, Paul W A1 - Timothy M. Frayling A1 - McCarthy, Mark I A1 - Joel Hirschhorn A1 - Ruth J F Loos A1 - Ingelsson, Erik A1 - Gerstein, Hertzel C A1 - Yusuf, Salim A1 - Beyene, Joseph A1 - Anand, Sonia S A1 - Meyre, David KW - Alleles KW - BMI KW - Genetics KW - Meta-analyses KW - Obesity KW - Older Adults AB -Polymorphisms rs6232 and rs6234/rs6235 in PCSK1 have been associated with extreme obesity [e.g. body mass index (BMI) ≥ 40 kg/m(2)], but their contribution to common obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and BMI variation in a multi-ethnic context is unclear. To fill this gap, we collected phenotypic and genetic data in up to 331 175 individuals from diverse ethnic groups. This process involved a systematic review of the literature in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and the NIH GWAS catalog complemented by data extraction from pre-existing GWAS or custom-arrays in consortia and single studies. We employed recently developed global meta-analytic random-effects methods to calculate summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) or beta estimates and standard errors (SE) for the obesity status and BMI analyses, respectively. Significant associations were found with binary obesity status for rs6232 (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.24, P = 6.08 × 10(-6)) and rs6234/rs6235 (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10, P = 3.00 × 10(-7)). Similarly, significant associations were found with continuous BMI for rs6232 (β = 0.03, 95% CI 0.00-0.07; P = 0.047) and rs6234/rs6235 (β = 0.02, 95% CI 0.00-0.03; P = 5.57 × 10(-4)). Ethnicity, age and study ascertainment significantly modulated the association of PCSK1 polymorphisms with obesity. In summary, we demonstrate evidence that common gene variation in PCSK1 contributes to BMI variation and susceptibility to common obesity in the largest known meta-analysis published to date in genetic epidemiology.

VL - 24 IS - 12 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations. JF - Nature Y1 - 2015 A1 - Joshi, Peter K A1 - Tõnu Esko A1 - Mattsson, Hannele A1 - Eklund, Niina A1 - Gandin, Ilaria A1 - Nutile, Teresa A1 - Jackson, Anne U A1 - Schurmann, Claudia A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Zhang, Weihua A1 - Okada, Yukinori A1 - Stančáková, Alena A1 - Jessica D. Faul A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Bartz, Traci M A1 - Maria Pina Concas A1 - Franceschini, Nora A1 - Enroth, Stefan A1 - Vitart, Veronique A1 - Trompet, Stella A1 - Guo, Xiuqing A1 - Chasman, Daniel I A1 - O'Connel, Jeffrey R A1 - Corre, Tanguy A1 - Nongmaithem, Suraj S A1 - Chen, Yuning A1 - Mangino, Massimo A1 - Ruggiero, Daniela A1 - Traglia, Michela A1 - Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni A1 - Kacprowski, Tim A1 - Bjonnes, Andrew A1 - van der Spek, Ashley A1 - Wu, Ying A1 - Giri, Anil K A1 - Yanek, Lisa R A1 - Wang, Lihua A1 - Hofer, Edith A1 - Cornelius A Rietveld A1 - McLeod, Olga A1 - Marilyn Cornelis A1 - Pattaro, Cristian A1 - Verweij, Niek A1 - Baumbach, Clemens A1 - Abdel Abdellaoui A1 - Warren, Helen R A1 - Vuckovic, Dragana A1 - Mei, Hao A1 - Bouchard, Claude A1 - Perry, John R B A1 - Cappellani, Stefania A1 - Saira S Mirza A1 - Benton, Miles C A1 - Broeckel, Ulrich A1 - Sarah E. Medland A1 - Penelope A. Lind A1 - Malerba, Giovanni A1 - Alexander Drong A1 - Yengo, Loic A1 - Bielak, Lawrence F A1 - Zhi, Degui A1 - van der Most, Peter J A1 - Shriner, Daniel A1 - Mägi, Reedik A1 - Hemani, Gibran A1 - Karaderi, Tugce A1 - Wang, Zhaoming A1 - Liu, Tian A1 - Demuth, Ilja A1 - Jing Hua Zhao A1 - Meng, Weihua A1 - Lataniotis, Lazaros A1 - van der Laan, Sander W A1 - Bradfield, Jonathan P A1 - Andrew R Wood A1 - Bonnefond, Amelie A1 - Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S A1 - Hall, Leanne M A1 - Salvi, Erika A1 - Yazar, Seyhan A1 - Carstensen, Lisbeth A1 - de Haan, Hugoline G A1 - Abney, Mark A1 - Afzal, Uzma A1 - Matthew A. Allison A1 - Amin, Najaf A1 - Asselbergs, Folkert W A1 - Bakker, Stephan J L A1 - Barr, R Graham A1 - Baumeister, Sebastian E A1 - Daniel J. Benjamin A1 - Bergmann, Sven A1 - Boerwinkle, Eric A1 - Erwin P. Bottinger A1 - Campbell, Archie A1 - Chakravarti, Aravinda A1 - Chan, Yingleong A1 - Chanock, Stephen J A1 - Chen, Constance A1 - Chen, Y-D Ida A1 - Collins, Francis S A1 - Connell, John A1 - Correa, Adolfo A1 - Cupples, L Adrienne A1 - Gail Davies A1 - Dörr, Marcus A1 - Georg Ehret A1 - Ellis, Stephen B A1 - Feenstra, Bjarke A1 - Feitosa, Mary F A1 - Ford, Ian A1 - Fox, Caroline S A1 - Timothy M. Frayling A1 - Friedrich, Nele A1 - Geller, Frank A1 - Scotland, Generation A1 - Gillham-Nasenya, Irina A1 - Gottesman, Omri A1 - Graff, Misa A1 - Grodstein, Francine A1 - Gu, Charles A1 - Haley, Chris A1 - Hammond, Christopher J A1 - Harris, Sarah E A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Hastie, Nicholas D A1 - Heard-Costa, Nancy L A1 - Heikkilä, Kauko A1 - Hocking, Lynne J A1 - Homuth, Georg A1 - Jouke-Jan Hottenga A1 - Huang, Jinyan A1 - Huffman, Jennifer E A1 - Hysi, Pirro G A1 - M Arfan Ikram A1 - Ingelsson, Erik A1 - Joensuu, Anni A1 - Johansson, Åsa A1 - Jousilahti, Pekka A1 - Jukema, J Wouter A1 - Kähönen, Mika A1 - Kamatani, Yoichiro A1 - Kanoni, Stavroula A1 - Kerr, Shona M A1 - Khan, Nazir M A1 - Philipp Koellinger A1 - Koistinen, Heikki A A1 - Kooner, Manraj K A1 - Kubo, Michiaki A1 - Kuusisto, Johanna A1 - Lahti, Jari A1 - Lenore J Launer A1 - Lea, Rodney A A1 - Lehne, Benjamin A1 - Lehtimäki, Terho A1 - David C Liewald A1 - Lars Lind A1 - Loh, Marie A1 - Lokki, Marja-Liisa A1 - London, Stephanie J A1 - Loomis, Stephanie J A1 - Loukola, Anu A1 - Lu, Yingchang A1 - Lumley, Thomas A1 - Lundqvist, Annamari A1 - Männistö, Satu A1 - Marques-Vidal, Pedro A1 - Masciullo, Corrado A1 - Matchan, Angela A1 - Mathias, Rasika A A1 - Matsuda, Koichi A1 - Meigs, James B A1 - Meisinger, Christa A1 - Meitinger, Thomas A1 - Menni, Cristina A1 - Mentch, Frank D A1 - Mihailov, Evelin A1 - Lili Milani A1 - Montasser, May E A1 - Grant W. Montgomery A1 - Alanna Morrison A1 - Myers, Richard H A1 - Nadukuru, Rajiv A1 - Navarro, Pau A1 - Nelis, Mari A1 - Nieminen, Markku S A1 - Nolte, Ilja M A1 - O'Connor, George T A1 - Ogunniyi, Adesola A1 - Padmanabhan, Sandosh A1 - Walter Palmas A1 - Pankow, James S A1 - Patarcic, Inga A1 - Pavani, Francesca A1 - Peyser, Patricia A A1 - Pietilainen, Kirsi A1 - Poulter, Neil A1 - Prokopenko, Inga A1 - Ralhan, Sarju A1 - Redmond, Paul A1 - Rich, Stephen S A1 - Rissanen, Harri A1 - Robino, Antonietta A1 - Rose, Lynda M A1 - Rose, Richard A1 - Cinzia Sala A1 - Salako, Babatunde A1 - Veikko Salomaa A1 - Sarin, Antti-Pekka A1 - Saxena, Richa A1 - Schmidt, Helena A1 - Scott, Laura J A1 - Scott, William R A1 - Sennblad, Bengt A1 - Seshadri, Sudha A1 - Sever, Peter A1 - Shrestha, Smeeta A1 - Smith, Blair H A1 - Jennifer A. Smith A1 - Soranzo, Nicole A1 - Sotoodehnia, Nona A1 - Southam, Lorraine A1 - Stanton, Alice V A1 - Stathopoulou, Maria G A1 - Strauch, Konstantin A1 - Strawbridge, Rona J A1 - Suderman, Matthew J A1 - Tandon, Nikhil A1 - Tang, Sian-Tsun A1 - Kent Taylor A1 - Bamidele Tayo A1 - Töglhofer, Anna Maria A1 - Tomaszewski, Maciej A1 - Tšernikova, Natalia A1 - Tuomilehto, Jaakko A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Vaidya, Dhananjay A1 - van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid A1 - van Setten, Jessica A1 - Vasankari, Tuula A1 - Vedantam, Sailaja A1 - Vlachopoulou, Efthymia A1 - Vozzi, Diego A1 - Vuoksimaa, Eero A1 - Waldenberger, Melanie A1 - Erin B Ware A1 - Wentworth-Shields, William A1 - Whitfield, John B A1 - Sarah Wild A1 - Gonneke Willemsen A1 - Yajnik, Chittaranjan S A1 - Yao, Jie A1 - Zaza, Gianluigi A1 - Zhu, Xiaofeng A1 - Salem, Rany M A1 - Melbye, Mads A1 - Bisgaard, Hans A1 - Nilesh Samani A1 - Cusi, Daniele A1 - Mackey, David A A1 - Cooper, Richard S A1 - Froguel, Philippe A1 - Pasterkamp, Gerard A1 - Grant, Struan F A A1 - Hakonarson, Hakon A1 - Luigi Ferrucci A1 - Scott, Robert A A1 - Morris, Andrew D A1 - Palmer, Colin N A A1 - George Dedoussis A1 - Deloukas, Panos A1 - Bertram, Lars A1 - Lindenberger, Ulman A1 - Berndt, Sonja I A1 - Lindgren, Cecilia M A1 - Nicholas J. Timpson A1 - Tönjes, Anke A1 - Munroe, Patricia B A1 - Thorkild I. A. Sørensen A1 - Rotimi, Charles N A1 - Donna K. Arnett A1 - Oldehinkel, Albertine J A1 - Sharon L. R. Kardia A1 - Balkau, Beverley A1 - Gambaro, Giovanni A1 - Morris, Andrew P A1 - Johan G Eriksson A1 - Wright, Margie J A1 - Nicholas G Martin A1 - Hunt, Steven C A1 - John M Starr A1 - Ian J Deary A1 - Griffiths, Lyn R A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - Nicola N Pirastu A1 - Kaprio, Jaakko A1 - Wareham, Nicholas J A1 - Pérusse, Louis A1 - Wilson, James G A1 - Giorgia Girotto A1 - Caulfield, Mark J A1 - Olli T Raitakari A1 - Dorret I. Boomsma A1 - Gieger, Christian A1 - van der Harst, Pim A1 - Hicks, Andrew A A1 - Kraft, Peter A1 - Sinisalo, Juha A1 - Knekt, Paul A1 - Johannesson, Magnus A1 - Patrik K E Magnusson A1 - Hamsten, Anders A1 - Schmidt, Reinhold A1 - Ingrid B. Borecki A1 - Vartiainen, Erkki A1 - Becker, Diane M A1 - Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan A1 - Mohlke, Karen L A1 - Boehnke, Michael A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Sanghera, Dharambir K A1 - Teumer, Alexander A1 - Zeggini, Eleftheria A1 - Andres Metspalu A1 - Paolo Gasparini A1 - Ulivi, Sheila A1 - Ober, Carole A1 - Toniolo, Daniela A1 - Rudan, Igor A1 - David Porteous A1 - Ciullo, Marina A1 - Tim D Spector A1 - Hayward, Caroline A1 - Dupuis, Josée A1 - Ruth J F Loos A1 - Wright, Alan F A1 - Chandak, Giriraj R A1 - Vollenweider, Peter A1 - Shuldiner, Alan R A1 - Ridker, Paul M A1 - Rotter, Jerome I A1 - Sattar, Naveed A1 - Gyllensten, Ulf A1 - North, Kari E A1 - Pirastu, Mario A1 - Psaty, Bruce M A1 - David R. Weir A1 - Laakso, Markku A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - Takahashi, Atsushi A1 - Chambers, John C A1 - Kooner, Jaspal S A1 - Strachan, David P A1 - Campbell, Harry A1 - Joel Hirschhorn A1 - Markus Perola A1 - Polasek, Ozren A1 - Wilson, James F KW - Biological Evolution KW - Blood pressure KW - Body Height KW - Cholesterol KW - Cognitive Ability KW - Cohort Studies KW - Education KW - Female KW - Forced Expiratory Volume KW - Genome KW - Homozygote KW - Humans KW - Lung Volume Measurements KW - Male KW - Phenotype AB -Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less well understood. Genomic data now allow us to investigate the effects of homozygosity on traits of public health importance by observing contiguous homozygous segments (runs of homozygosity), which are inferred to be homozygous along their complete length. Given the low levels of genome-wide homozygosity prevalent in most human populations, information is required on very large numbers of people to provide sufficient power. Here we use runs of homozygosity to study 16 health-related quantitative traits in 354,224 individuals from 102 cohorts, and find statistically significant associations between summed runs of homozygosity and four complex traits: height, forced expiratory lung volume in one second, general cognitive ability and educational attainment (P < 1 × 10(-300), 2.1 × 10(-6), 2.5 × 10(-10) and 1.8 × 10(-10), respectively). In each case, increased homozygosity was associated with decreased trait value, equivalent to the offspring of first cousins being 1.2 cm shorter and having 10 months' less education. Similar effect sizes were found across four continental groups and populations with different degrees of genome-wide homozygosity, providing evidence that homozygosity, rather than confounding, directly contributes to phenotypic variance. Contrary to earlier reports in substantially smaller samples, no evidence was seen of an influence of genome-wide homozygosity on blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or ten other cardio-metabolic traits. Since directional dominance is predicted for traits under directional evolutionary selection, this study provides evidence that increased stature and cognitive function have been positively selected in human evolution, whereas many important risk factors for late-onset complex diseases may not have been.

VL - 523 IS - 7561 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26131930?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology. JF - Nature Y1 - 2015 A1 - Locke, Adam E A1 - Kahali, Bratati A1 - Berndt, Sonja I A1 - Justice, Anne E A1 - Pers, Tune H A1 - Day, Felix R A1 - Powell, Corey A1 - Vedantam, Sailaja A1 - Buchkovich, Martin L A1 - Yang, Jian A1 - Croteau-Chonka, Damien C A1 - Tõnu Esko A1 - Fall, Tove A1 - Ferreira, Teresa A1 - Gustafsson, Stefan A1 - Kutalik, Zoltán A1 - Luan, Jian'an A1 - Mägi, Reedik A1 - Randall, Joshua C A1 - Winkler, Thomas W A1 - Andrew R Wood A1 - Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie A1 - Jessica D. Faul A1 - Jennifer A. Smith A1 - Jing Hua Zhao A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Chen, Jin A1 - Fehrmann, Rudolf A1 - Hedman, Åsa K A1 - Karjalainen, Juha A1 - Schmidt, Ellen M A1 - Absher, Devin A1 - Amin, Najaf A1 - Anderson, Denise A1 - Beekman, Marian A1 - Bolton, Jennifer L A1 - Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L A1 - Buyske, Steven A1 - Demirkan, Ayse A1 - Deng, Guohong A1 - Georg Ehret A1 - Feenstra, Bjarke A1 - Feitosa, Mary F A1 - Fischer, Krista A1 - Goel, Anuj A1 - Gong, Jian A1 - Jackson, Anne U A1 - Kanoni, Stavroula A1 - Kleber, Marcus E A1 - Kristiansson, Kati A1 - Lim, Unhee A1 - Lotay, Vaneet A1 - Mangino, Massimo A1 - Mateo Leach, Irene A1 - Medina-Gomez, Carolina A1 - Sarah E. Medland A1 - Mike A Nalls A1 - Palmer, Cameron D A1 - Pasko, Dorota A1 - Pechlivanis, Sonali A1 - Peters, Marjolein J A1 - Prokopenko, Inga A1 - Shungin, Dmitry A1 - Stančáková, Alena A1 - Strawbridge, Rona J A1 - Yun Ju Sung A1 - Toshiko Tanaka A1 - Teumer, Alexander A1 - Trompet, Stella A1 - van der Laan, Sander W A1 - van Setten, Jessica A1 - Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V A1 - Wang, Zhaoming A1 - Yengo, Loic A1 - Zhang, Weihua A1 - Isaacs, Aaron A1 - Albrecht, Eva A1 - Ärnlöv, Johan A1 - Arscott, Gillian M A1 - Attwood, Antony P A1 - Bandinelli, Stefania A1 - Barrett, Amy A1 - Bas, Isabelita N A1 - Bellis, Claire A1 - Bennett, Amanda J A1 - Berne, Christian A1 - Blagieva, Roza A1 - Blüher, Matthias A1 - Böhringer, Stefan A1 - Bonnycastle, Lori L A1 - Böttcher, Yvonne A1 - Boyd, Heather A A1 - Bruinenberg, Marcel A1 - Caspersen, Ida H A1 - Yii-Der I Chen A1 - Robert Clark A1 - Daw, E Warwick A1 - de Craen, Anton J M A1 - Delgado, Graciela A1 - Dimitriou, Maria A1 - Doney, Alex S F A1 - Eklund, Niina A1 - Estrada, Karol A1 - Eury, Elodie A1 - Folkersen, Lasse A1 - Fraser, Ross M A1 - Melissa E Garcia A1 - Geller, Frank A1 - Giedraitis, Vilmantas A1 - Gigante, Bruna A1 - Alan S Go A1 - Golay, Alain A1 - Goodall, Alison H A1 - Gordon, Scott D A1 - Gorski, Mathias A1 - Grabe, Hans-Jörgen A1 - Grallert, Harald A1 - Grammer, Tanja B A1 - Gräßler, Jürgen A1 - Grönberg, Henrik A1 - Groves, Christopher J A1 - Gusto, Gaëlle A1 - Haessler, Jeffrey A1 - Hall, Per A1 - Haller, Toomas A1 - Hallmans, Göran A1 - Hartman, Catharina A A1 - Hassinen, Maija A1 - Hayward, Caroline A1 - Heard-Costa, Nancy L A1 - Helmer, Quinta A1 - Hengstenberg, Christian A1 - Oddgeir Holmen A1 - Jouke-Jan Hottenga A1 - James, Alan L A1 - Jeff, Janina M A1 - Johansson, Åsa A1 - Jolley, Jennifer A1 - Juliusdottir, Thorhildur A1 - Kinnunen, Leena A1 - Koenig, Wolfgang A1 - Koskenvuo, Markku A1 - Kratzer, Wolfgang A1 - Laitinen, Jaana A1 - Lamina, Claudia A1 - Leander, Karin A1 - Lee, Nanette R A1 - Lichtner, Peter A1 - Lars Lind A1 - Lindström, Jaana A1 - Ken S Lo A1 - Lobbens, Stéphane A1 - Lorbeer, Roberto A1 - Lu, Yingchang A1 - Mach, François A1 - Patrik K E Magnusson A1 - Mahajan, Anubha A1 - McArdle, Wendy L A1 - McLachlan, Stela A1 - Menni, Cristina A1 - Merger, Sigrun A1 - Mihailov, Evelin A1 - Lili Milani A1 - Moayyeri, Alireza A1 - Monda, Keri L A1 - Morken, Mario A A1 - Mulas, Antonella A1 - Müller, Gabriele A1 - Müller-Nurasyid, Martina A1 - Musk, Arthur W A1 - Nagaraja, Ramaiah A1 - Nöthen, Markus M A1 - Nolte, Ilja M A1 - Pilz, Stefan A1 - Rayner, Nigel W A1 - Renstrom, Frida A1 - Rettig, Rainer A1 - Ried, Janina S A1 - Ripke, Stephan A1 - Neil Robertson A1 - Rose, Lynda M A1 - Sanna, Serena A1 - Scharnagl, Hubert A1 - Scholtens, Salome A1 - Schumacher, Fredrick R A1 - Scott, William R A1 - Seufferlein, Thomas A1 - Shi, Jianxin A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Smolonska, Joanna A1 - Stanton, Alice V A1 - Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur A1 - Kathleen Stirrups A1 - Stringham, Heather M A1 - Sundström, Johan A1 - Swertz, Morris A A1 - Swift, Amy J A1 - Syvänen, Ann-Christine A1 - Tan, Sian-Tsung A1 - Bamidele Tayo A1 - Thorand, Barbara A1 - Thorleifsson, Gudmar A1 - Tyrer, Jonathan P A1 - Uh, Hae-Won A1 - Vandenput, Liesbeth A1 - Verhulst, Frank C A1 - Vermeulen, Sita H A1 - Verweij, Niek A1 - Vonk, Judith M A1 - Waite, Lindsay L A1 - Warren, Helen R A1 - Dawn Waterworth A1 - Michael N Weedon A1 - Wilkens, Lynne R A1 - Willenborg, Christina A1 - Wilsgaard, Tom A1 - Wojczynski, Mary K A1 - Wong, Andrew A1 - Wright, Alan F A1 - Zhang, Qunyuan A1 - Brennan, Eoin P A1 - Murim Choi A1 - Dastani, Zari A1 - Alexander Drong A1 - Eriksson, Per A1 - Franco-Cereceda, Anders A1 - Gådin, Jesper R A1 - Gharavi, Ali G A1 - Goddard, Michael E A1 - Handsaker, Robert E A1 - Huang, Jinyan A1 - Karpe, Fredrik A1 - Kathiresan, Sekar A1 - Keildson, Sarah A1 - Kiryluk, Krzysztof A1 - Kubo, Michiaki A1 - Lee, Jong-Young A1 - Liang, Liming A1 - Lifton, Richard P A1 - Ma, Baoshan A1 - McCarroll, Steven A A1 - McKnight, Amy J A1 - Min, Josine L A1 - Moffatt, Miriam F A1 - Grant W. Montgomery A1 - Joanne M Murabito A1 - Nicholson, George A1 - Nyholt, Dale R A1 - Okada, Yukinori A1 - Perry, John R B A1 - Dorajoo, Rajkumar A1 - Reinmaa, Eva A1 - Salem, Rany M A1 - Sandholm, Niina A1 - Scott, Robert A A1 - Stolk, Lisette A1 - Takahashi, Atsushi A1 - Tanaka, Toshihiro A1 - Van't Hooft, Ferdinand M A1 - Anna E Vinkhuyzen A1 - Westra, Harm-Jan A1 - Wei Zhang A1 - Krina T Zondervan A1 - Heath, Andrew C A1 - Arveiler, Dominique A1 - Bakker, Stephan J L A1 - Beilby, John A1 - Bergman, Richard N A1 - Blangero, John A1 - Bovet, Pascal A1 - Campbell, Harry A1 - Caulfield, Mark J A1 - Cesana, Giancarlo A1 - Chakravarti, Aravinda A1 - Chasman, Daniel I A1 - Chines, Peter S A1 - Collins, Francis S A1 - Crawford, Dana C A1 - Cupples, L Adrienne A1 - Cusi, Daniele A1 - Danesh, John A1 - de Faire, Ulf A1 - Hester M Ruijter A1 - Dominiczak, Anna F A1 - Erbel, Raimund A1 - Erdmann, Jeanette A1 - Johan G Eriksson A1 - Farrall, Martin A1 - Felix, Stephan B A1 - Ferrannini, Ele A1 - Ferrières, Jean A1 - Ford, Ian A1 - Forouhi, Nita G A1 - Forrester, Terrence A1 - Franco, Oscar H A1 - Gansevoort, Ron T A1 - Gejman, Pablo V A1 - Gieger, Christian A1 - Gottesman, Omri A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - Gyllensten, Ulf A1 - Hall, Alistair S A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Hattersley, Andrew T A1 - Hicks, Andrew A A1 - Hindorff, Lucia A A1 - Hingorani, Aroon D A1 - Hofman, Albert A1 - Homuth, Georg A1 - Hovingh, G Kees A1 - Humphries, Steve E A1 - Hunt, Steven C A1 - Hyppönen, Elina A1 - Illig, Thomas A1 - Jacobs, Kevin B A1 - Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta A1 - Jöckel, Karl-Heinz A1 - Johansen, Berit A1 - Jousilahti, Pekka A1 - Jukema, J Wouter A1 - Jula, Antti M A1 - Kaprio, Jaakko A1 - Kastelein, John J P A1 - Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M A1 - Lambertus A Kiemeney A1 - Knekt, Paul A1 - Kooner, Jaspal S A1 - Kooperberg, Charles A1 - Kovacs, Peter A1 - Kraja, Aldi T A1 - Kumari, Meena A1 - Kuusisto, Johanna A1 - Lakka, Timo A A1 - Langenberg, Claudia A1 - Le Marchand, Loic A1 - Lehtimäki, Terho A1 - Lyssenko, Valeriya A1 - Männistö, Satu A1 - Marette, André A1 - Matise, Tara C A1 - McKenzie, Colin A A1 - McKnight, Barbara A1 - Moll, Frans L A1 - Morris, Andrew D A1 - Morris, Andrew P A1 - Murray, Jeffrey C A1 - Nelis, Mari A1 - Ohlsson, Claes A1 - Oldehinkel, Albertine J A1 - Ong, Ken K A1 - Pamela A Madden A1 - Pasterkamp, Gerard A1 - Peden, John F A1 - Peters, Annette A1 - Postma, Dirkje S A1 - Pramstaller, Peter P A1 - Price, Jackie F A1 - Qi, Lu A1 - Olli T Raitakari A1 - Rankinen, Tuomo A1 - Rao, D C A1 - Rice, Treva K A1 - Ridker, Paul M A1 - Rioux, John D A1 - Ritchie, Marylyn D A1 - Rudan, Igor A1 - Veikko Salomaa A1 - Nilesh Samani A1 - Saramies, Jouko A1 - Sarzynski, Mark A A1 - Schunkert, Heribert A1 - Schwarz, Peter E H A1 - Sever, Peter A1 - Shuldiner, Alan R A1 - Sinisalo, Juha A1 - Stolk, Ronald P A1 - Strauch, Konstantin A1 - Tönjes, Anke A1 - Trégouët, David-Alexandre A1 - Tremblay, Angelo A1 - Tremoli, Elena A1 - Virtamo, Jarmo A1 - Vohl, Marie-Claude A1 - Völker, Uwe A1 - Waeber, Gérard A1 - Gonneke Willemsen A1 - Witteman, Jacqueline C A1 - Zillikens, M Carola A1 - Adair, Linda S A1 - Amouyel, Philippe A1 - Asselbergs, Folkert W A1 - Assimes, Themistocles L A1 - Bochud, Murielle A1 - Boehm, Bernhard O A1 - Boerwinkle, Eric A1 - Bornstein, Stefan R A1 - Erwin P. Bottinger A1 - Bouchard, Claude A1 - Cauchi, Stéphane A1 - Chambers, John C A1 - Chanock, Stephen J A1 - Cooper, Richard S A1 - de Bakker, Paul I W A1 - George Dedoussis A1 - Luigi Ferrucci A1 - Franks, Paul W A1 - Froguel, Philippe A1 - Groop, Leif C A1 - Haiman, Christopher A A1 - Hamsten, Anders A1 - Hui, Jennie A1 - Hunter, David J A1 - Hveem, Kristian A1 - Kaplan, Robert C A1 - Mika Kivimaki A1 - Kuh, Diana A1 - Laakso, Markku A1 - Liu, Yongmei A1 - Nicholas G Martin A1 - März, Winfried A1 - Melbye, Mads A1 - Andres Metspalu A1 - Moebus, Susanne A1 - Munroe, Patricia B A1 - Njølstad, Inger A1 - Ben A Oostra A1 - Palmer, Colin N A A1 - Nancy L. Pedersen A1 - Markus Perola A1 - Pérusse, Louis A1 - Peters, Ulrike A1 - Power, Chris A1 - Quertermous, Thomas A1 - Rauramaa, Rainer A1 - Fernando Rivadeneira A1 - Saaristo, Timo E A1 - Saleheen, Danish A1 - Sattar, Naveed A1 - Schadt, Eric E A1 - Schlessinger, David A1 - Eline P. Slagboom A1 - Snieder, Harold A1 - Tim D Spector A1 - Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A1 - Stumvoll, Michael A1 - Tuomilehto, Jaakko A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Uusitupa, Matti A1 - van der Harst, Pim A1 - Walker, Mark A1 - Wallaschofski, Henri A1 - Wareham, Nicholas J A1 - Watkins, Hugh A1 - David R. Weir A1 - Wichmann, H-Erich A1 - Wilson, James F A1 - Zanen, Pieter A1 - Ingrid B. Borecki A1 - Deloukas, Panos A1 - Fox, Caroline S A1 - Heid, Iris M A1 - O'Connell, Jeffrey R A1 - Strachan, David P A1 - Stefansson, Kari A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Gonçalo Abecasis A1 - Lude L. Franke A1 - Timothy M. Frayling A1 - McCarthy, Mark I A1 - Peter M Visscher A1 - Scherag, Andre A1 - Willer, Cristen J A1 - Boehnke, Michael A1 - Mohlke, Karen L A1 - Lindgren, Cecilia M A1 - Beckmann, Jacques S A1 - Barroso, Inês A1 - North, Kari E A1 - Ingelsson, Erik A1 - Joel Hirschhorn A1 - Ruth J F Loos A1 - Speliotes, Elizabeth K KW - Age Factors KW - BMI KW - Continental Population Groups KW - Energy Metabolism KW - Europe KW - Female KW - Genome-Wide Association Study KW - Glutamic Acid KW - Humans KW - Insulin KW - Male KW - Obesity KW - Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide KW - Quantitative Trait Loci KW - Synapses AB -Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ∼2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.

VL - 518 IS - 7538 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25673413?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - GWAS of longevity in CHARGE consortium confirms APOE and FOXO3 candidacy. JF - Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences Y1 - 2015 A1 - Broer, Linda A1 - Aron S. Buchman A1 - Deelen, Joris A1 - Daniel S. Evans A1 - Jessica D. Faul A1 - Kathryn L. Lunetta A1 - Sebastiani, Paola A1 - Jennifer A. Smith A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Toshiko Tanaka A1 - Lei Yu A1 - Alice M. Arnold A1 - Aspelund, Thor A1 - Emelia J. Benjamin A1 - Philip L. De Jager A1 - Guðny Eiríksdóttir A1 - Melissa E Garcia A1 - Hofman, Albert A1 - Kaplan, Robert C A1 - Sharon L. R. Kardia A1 - Douglas P. Kiel A1 - Ben A Oostra A1 - Orwoll, Eric S A1 - Parimi, Neeta A1 - Psaty, Bruce M A1 - Fernando Rivadeneira A1 - Rotter, Jerome I A1 - Seshadri, Sudha A1 - Andrew B. Singleton A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Bandinelli, Stefania A1 - David A. Bennett A1 - Luigi Ferrucci A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Karasik, David A1 - Lenore J Launer A1 - Thomas Perls A1 - Eline P. Slagboom A1 - Tranah, Gregory J A1 - David R. Weir A1 - Anne B Newman A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Joanne M Murabito KW - CHARGE KW - Genetics KW - Longevity KW - Mortality KW - Older Adults AB -**BACKGROUND: **The genetic contribution to longevity in humans has been estimated to range from 15% to 25%. Only two genes, APOE and FOXO3, have shown association with longevity in multiple independent studies.

**METHODS: **We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies including 6,036 longevity cases, age ≥90 years, and 3,757 controls that died between ages 55 and 80 years. We additionally attempted to replicate earlier identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with longevity.

**RESULTS: **In our meta-analysis, we found suggestive evidence for the association of SNPs near CADM2 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81; p value = 9.66 × 10(-7)) and GRIK2 (odds ratio = 1.24; p value = 5.09 × 10(-8)) with longevity. When attempting to replicate findings earlier identified in genome-wide association studies, only the APOE locus consistently replicated. In an additional look-up of the candidate gene FOXO3, we found that an earlier identified variant shows a highly significant association with longevity when including published data with our meta-analysis (odds ratio = 1.17; p value = 1.85×10(-10)).

**CONCLUSIONS: **We did not identify new genome-wide significant associations with longevity and did not replicate earlier findings except for APOE and FOXO3. Our inability to find new associations with survival to ages ≥90 years because longevity represents multiple complex traits with heterogeneous genetic underpinnings, or alternatively, that longevity may be regulated by rare variants that are not captured by standard genome-wide genotyping and imputation of common variants.

Menopause timing has a substantial impact on infertility and risk of disease, including breast cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We report a dual strategy in ∼70,000 women to identify common and low-frequency protein-coding variation associated with age at natural menopause (ANM). We identified 44 regions with common variants, including two regions harboring additional rare missense alleles of large effect. We found enrichment of signals in or near genes involved in delayed puberty, highlighting the first molecular links between the onset and end of reproductive lifespan. Pathway analyses identified major association with DNA damage response (DDR) genes, including the first common coding variant in BRCA1 associated with any complex trait. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of later ANM on breast cancer risk (∼6% increase in risk per year; P = 3 × 10(-14)), likely mediated by prolonged sex hormone exposure rather than DDR mechanisms.

VL - 47 IS - 11 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26414677?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Loneliness, eudaimonia, and the human conserved transcriptional response to adversity JF - Psychoneuroendocrinology Y1 - 2015 A1 - Steven W. Cole A1 - Morgan E. Levine A1 - Arevalo, Jesusa M. G. A1 - Ma, Jeffrey A1 - David R. Weir A1 - Eileen M. Crimmins KW - Adult children KW - Genetics KW - Health Conditions and Status KW - Healthcare AB - Background: Chronic social adversity activates a conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) marked by increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes and decreased expression of antiviral- and antibody-related genes. Recent findings suggest that some psychological resilience factors may help buffer CTRA activation, but the relative impact of resilience and adversity factors remains poorly understood. Here we examined the relative strength of CTRA association for the two best-established psychological correlates of CTRA gene expression the risk factor of perceived social isolation (loneliness) and the resilience factor of eudaimonic well-being (purpose and meaning in life). Methods: Peripheral blood samples and validated measures of loneliness and eudaimonic well-being were analyzed in 108 community-dwelling older adults participating in the longitudinal US Health and Retirement Study (56 female, mean age 73). Mixed effect linear model analyses quantified the strength of association between CTRA gene expression and measures of loneliness and eudaimonic well-being in separate and joint analyses. Results: As in previous studies, separate analyses found CTRA gene expression to be up-regulated in association with loneliness and down-regulated in association with eudaimonic well-being. In joint analyses, effects of loneliness were completely abrogated whereas eudaimonic well-being continued to associate with CTRA down-regulation. Similar eudaimonia-dominant effects were observed for positive and negative affect, optimism and pessimism, and anxiety symptoms. All results were independent of demographic and behavioral health risk factors. Conclusions: Eudaimonic well-being may have the potential to compensate for the adverse impact of loneliness on CTRA gene expression. Findings suggest a novel approach to targeting the health risks associated with social isolation by promoting purpose and meaning in life. PB - 62 VL - 62 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306453015002358 U2 - PMC4637182 U4 - Social genomics/Psychoneuroimmunology/Gene expression/Transcriptome/Microarray/Stress/Social support/Psychological well-being/Eudaimonia/Positive psychology ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Genetic diversity is a predictor of mortality in humans. JF - BMC Genetics Y1 - 2014 A1 - Bihlmeyer, Nathan A A1 - Brody, Jennifer A A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Kathryn L. Lunetta A1 - Mike A Nalls A1 - Jennifer A. Smith A1 - Toshiko Tanaka A1 - Gail Davies A1 - Lei Yu A1 - Saira S Mirza A1 - Teumer, Alexander A1 - Coresh, Josef A1 - Pankow, James S A1 - Franceschini, Nora A1 - Scaria, Anish A1 - Oshima, Junko A1 - Psaty, Bruce M A1 - Gudnason, Vilmundur A1 - Guðny Eiríksdóttir A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Li, Hanyue A1 - Karasik, David A1 - Douglas P. Kiel A1 - Melissa E Garcia A1 - Liu, Yongmei A1 - Jessica D. Faul A1 - Sharon L. R. Kardia A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Luigi Ferrucci A1 - Allerhand, Michael A1 - David C Liewald A1 - Redmond, Paul A1 - John M Starr A1 - Philip L. De Jager A1 - Nese Direk A1 - M Arfan Ikram A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Homuth, Georg A1 - Lorbeer, Roberto A1 - Grabe, Hans J A1 - Lenore J Launer A1 - Joanne M Murabito A1 - Andrew B. Singleton A1 - David R. Weir A1 - Bandinelli, Stefania A1 - Ian J Deary A1 - David A. Bennett A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - Kocher, Thomas A1 - Lumley, Thomas A1 - Dan E Arking KW - CHARGE KW - Diversity KW - Genetics KW - Mortality KW - Older Adults KW - Risk Assessment AB -**BACKGROUND: **It has been well-established, both by population genetics theory and direct observation in many organisms, that increased genetic diversity provides a survival advantage. However, given the limitations of both sample size and genome-wide metrics, this hypothesis has not been comprehensively tested in human populations. Moreover, the presence of numerous segregating small effect alleles that influence traits that directly impact health directly raises the question as to whether global measures of genomic variation are themselves associated with human health and disease.

**RESULTS: **We performed a meta-analysis of 17 cohorts followed prospectively, with a combined sample size of 46,716 individuals, including a total of 15,234 deaths. We find a significant association between increased heterozygosity and survival (P = 0.03). We estimate that within a single population, every standard deviation of heterozygosity an individual has over the mean decreases that person's risk of death by 1.57%.

**CONCLUSIONS: **This effect was consistent between European and African ancestry cohorts, men and women, and major causes of death (cancer and cardiovascular disease), demonstrating the broad positive impact of genomic diversity on human survival.

High blood pressure (BP) is more prevalent and contributes to more severe manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in African Americans than in any other United States ethnic group. Several small African-ancestry (AA) BP genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been published, but their findings have failed to replicate to date. We report on a large AA BP GWAS meta-analysis that includes 29,378 individuals from 19 discovery cohorts and subsequent replication in additional samples of AA (n = 10,386), European ancestry (EA) (n = 69,395), and East Asian ancestry (n = 19,601). Five loci (EVX1-HOXA, ULK4, RSPO3, PLEKHG1, and SOX6) reached genome-wide significance (p < 1.0 × 10(-8)) for either systolic or diastolic BP in a transethnic meta-analysis after correction for multiple testing. Three of these BP loci (EVX1-HOXA, RSPO3, and PLEKHG1) lack previous associations with BP. We also identified one independent signal in a known BP locus (SOX6) and provide evidence for fine mapping in four additional validated BP loci. We also demonstrate that validated EA BP GWAS loci, considered jointly, show significant effects in AA samples. Consequently, these findings suggest that BP loci might have universal effects across studied populations, demonstrating that multiethnic samples are an essential component in identifying, fine mapping, and understanding their trait variability.

VL - 93 IS - 3 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment. JF - Science Y1 - 2013 A1 - Cornelius A Rietveld A1 - Sarah E. Medland A1 - Derringer, Jaime A1 - Yang, Jian A1 - Tõnu Esko A1 - Martin, Nicolas W A1 - Westra, Harm-Jan A1 - Shakhbazov, Konstantin A1 - Abdel Abdellaoui A1 - Agrawal, Arpana A1 - Albrecht, Eva A1 - Alizadeh, Behrooz Z A1 - Amin, Najaf A1 - Barnard, John A1 - Baumeister, Sebastian E A1 - Benke, Kelly S A1 - Bielak, Lawrence F A1 - Boatman, Jeffrey A A1 - Patricia A. Boyle A1 - Gail Davies A1 - Christiaan de Leeuw A1 - Eklund, Niina A1 - Daniel S. Evans A1 - Ferhmann, Rudolf A1 - Fischer, Krista A1 - Gieger, Christian A1 - Gjessing, Håkon K A1 - Hägg, Sara A1 - Harris, Jennifer R A1 - Hayward, Caroline A1 - Holzapfel, Christina A1 - Carla A. Ibrahim-Verbaas A1 - Ingelsson, Erik A1 - Jacobsson, Bo A1 - Joshi, Peter K A1 - Jugessur, Astanand A1 - Marika A Kaakinen A1 - Kanoni, Stavroula A1 - Karjalainen, Juha A1 - Kolcic, Ivana A1 - Kristiansson, Kati A1 - Kutalik, Zoltán A1 - J. Lahti A1 - Lee, Sang H A1 - Lin, Peng A1 - Penelope A. Lind A1 - Liu, Yongmei A1 - Lohman, Kurt A1 - Loitfelder, Marisa A1 - McMahon, George A1 - Vidal, Pedro Marques A1 - Osorio Meirelles A1 - Lili Milani A1 - Myhre, Ronny A1 - Nuotio, Marja-Liisa A1 - Christopher Oldmeadow A1 - Petrovic, Katja E A1 - Wouter J Peyrot A1 - Polasek, Ozren A1 - Quaye, Lydia A1 - Reinmaa, Eva A1 - Rice, John P A1 - Rizzi, Thais S A1 - Schmidt, Helena A1 - Schmidt, Reinhold A1 - Albert Vernon Smith A1 - Jennifer A. Smith A1 - Toshiko Tanaka A1 - Antonio Terracciano A1 - van der Loos, Matthijs J H M A1 - Vitart, Veronique A1 - Völzke, Henry A1 - Jürgen Wellmann A1 - Lei Yu A1 - Wei Zhao A1 - Allik, Jüri A1 - John R. Attia A1 - Bandinelli, Stefania A1 - Bastardot, François A1 - Jonathan P. Beauchamp A1 - David A. Bennett A1 - Berger, Klaus A1 - Bierut, Laura J A1 - Dorret I. Boomsma A1 - Bültmann, Ute A1 - Campbell, Harry A1 - Chabris, Christopher F A1 - Cherkas, Lynn A1 - Chung, Mina K A1 - Francesco Cucca A1 - de Andrade, Mariza A1 - Philip L. De Jager A1 - De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel A1 - Ian J Deary A1 - George Dedoussis A1 - Deloukas, Panos A1 - Dimitriou, Maria A1 - Guðny Eiríksdóttir A1 - Elderson, Martin F A1 - Johan G Eriksson A1 - Jessica D. Faul A1 - Luigi Ferrucci A1 - Melissa E Garcia A1 - Grönberg, Henrik A1 - Guðnason, Vilmundur A1 - Hall, Per A1 - Harris, Juliette M A1 - Tamara B Harris A1 - Hastie, Nicholas D A1 - Heath, Andrew C A1 - Dena Hernandez A1 - Hoffmann, Wolfgang A1 - Hofman, Adriaan A1 - Holle, Rolf A1 - Holliday, Elizabeth G A1 - Jouke-Jan Hottenga A1 - Iacono, William G A1 - Illig, Thomas A1 - Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta A1 - Kähönen, Mika A1 - Kaprio, Jaakko A1 - Kirkpatrick, Robert M A1 - Kowgier, Matthew A1 - Latvala, Antti A1 - Lenore J Launer A1 - Lawlor, Debbie A A1 - Lehtimäki, Terho A1 - Li, Jingmei A1 - Paul Lichtenstein A1 - Lichtner, Peter A1 - David C Liewald A1 - Pamela A Madden A1 - Patrik K E Magnusson A1 - Mäkinen, Tomi E A1 - Masala, Marco A1 - McGue, Matt A1 - Andres Metspalu A1 - Mielck, Andreas A1 - Michael B Miller A1 - Grant W. Montgomery A1 - Mukherjee, Sutapa A1 - Nyholt, Dale R A1 - Ben A Oostra A1 - Palmer, Lyle J A1 - Aarno Palotie A1 - Brenda W Penninx A1 - Markus Perola A1 - Peyser, Patricia A A1 - Preisig, Martin A1 - Katri Räikkönen A1 - Olli T Raitakari A1 - Realo, Anu A1 - Ring, Susan M A1 - Ripatti, Samuli A1 - Fernando Rivadeneira A1 - Rudan, Igor A1 - Rustichini, Aldo A1 - Veikko Salomaa A1 - Sarin, Antti-Pekka A1 - Schlessinger, David A1 - Scott, Rodney J A1 - Snieder, Harold A1 - St Pourcain, Beate A1 - John M Starr A1 - Sul, Jae Hoon A1 - Surakka, Ida A1 - Svento, Rauli A1 - Teumer, Alexander A1 - Henning Tiemeier A1 - van Rooij, Frank J A A1 - Van Wagoner, David R A1 - Vartiainen, Erkki A1 - Viikari, Jorma A1 - Vollenweider, Peter A1 - Vonk, Judith M A1 - Waeber, Gérard A1 - David R. Weir A1 - Wichmann, H-Erich A1 - Elisabeth Widen A1 - Gonneke Willemsen A1 - Wilson, James F A1 - Wright, Alan F A1 - Dalton C. Conley A1 - Davey-Smith, George A1 - Lude L. Franke A1 - Groenen, Patrick J F A1 - Hofman, Albert A1 - Johannesson, Magnus A1 - Sharon L. R. Kardia A1 - Krueger, Robert F A1 - David I Laibson A1 - Nicholas G Martin A1 - Meyer, Michelle N A1 - Posthuma, Danielle A1 - A. Roy Thurik A1 - Nicholas J. Timpson A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Peter M Visscher A1 - Daniel J. Benjamin A1 - Cesarini, David A1 - Philipp Koellinger KW - CHARGE KW - Cognitive Ability KW - Education KW - Genetics KW - Women and Minorities AB -A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R(2) ≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.

VL - 340 IS - 6139 ER -