**OBJECTIVES: **Food insecurity, limited or uncertain access to adequate nutrition, is an increasingly recognized determinant of health outcomes and is often associated with having obesity. It is unclear, however, if this association persists in elderly populations.

**METHODS: **We conducted a cross-sectional study of 2868 participants' aged 65+ years from the Health and Retirement Study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between food insecurity and body mass index, demographic characteristics, psychiatric history, and medical history.

**RESULTS: **Participants with overweight/obesity had a higher prevalence of food insecurity than leaner counterparts, however, weight status was not a significant predictor of food insecurity after multivariate adjustment. Instead, mental illness, current smoking status, and non-White race were all independently associated with food insecurity.

**DISCUSSION: **Beyond financial status, health care providers are encouraged to use these characteristics to identify elderly patients that may be at risk of food insecurity.

**OBJECTIVE: **To determine whether physical activity and body mass index (BMI) predict instrumental or basic activities of daily living (I/ADL) trajectories before or after stroke compared to individuals who remained stroke-free.

**METHODS: **Using a prospective cohort, the Health and Retirement Study, we followed adults without a history of stroke in 1998 (n = 18,117) for up to 14 years. We estimated linear regression models of I/ADL trajectories comparing individuals who remained stroke-free throughout follow-up (n = 16,264), those who survived stroke (n = 1,374), and those who died after stroke and before the next interview wave (n = 479). We evaluated whether I/ADL trajectories differed by physical activity or BMI at baseline (before stroke), adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic covariates.

**RESULTS: **Compared to those who were physically active, stroke survivors who were physically inactive at baseline had a lower probability of independence in ADLs and IADLs 3 years after stroke (risk difference = -0.18 and -0.16 for ADLs and IADLs, respectively). However, a similar difference in the probability of independence was also present 3 years before stroke, and we observed no evidence that physical activity slowed the rate of decline in independence before or after stroke. Unlike the results for physical activity, we did not observe a consistent pattern for the probability of independence in ADLs or IADLs comparing obese stroke survivors to normal-weight or to overweight stroke survivors 3 years before stroke or 3 years after stroke.

**CONCLUSIONS: **Physical inactivity predicts a higher risk of being dependent both before and after stroke.

**IMPORTANCE: **Many genetic variants are associated with body mass index (BMI). Associations may have changed with the 20th century obesity epidemic and may differ for black vs white individuals.

**OBJECTIVE: **Using birth cohort as an indicator for exposure to obesogenic environment, to evaluate whether genetic predisposition to higher BMI has a larger magnitude of association among adults from more recent birth cohorts, who were exposed to the obesity epidemic at younger ages.

**DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: **Observational study of 8788 adults in the US national Health and Retirement Study who were aged 50 years and older, born between 1900 and 1958, with as many as 12 BMI assessments from 1992 to 2014.

**EXPOSURES: **A multilocus genetic risk score for BMI (GRS-BMI), calculated as the weighted sum of alleles of 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with BMI, with weights equal to the published per-allele effects. The GRS-BMI represents how much each person's BMI is expected to differ, based on genetic background (with respect to these 29 loci), from the BMI of a sample member with median genetic risk. The median-centered GRS-BMI ranged from -1.68 to 2.01.

**MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: **BMI based on self-reported height and weight.

**RESULTS: **GRS-BMI was significantly associated with BMI among white participants (n = 7482; mean age at first assessment, 59 years; 3373 [45%] were men; P <.001) and among black participants (n = 1306; mean age at first assessment, 57 years; 505 [39%] were men; P <.001) but accounted for 0.99% of variation in BMI among white participants and 1.37% among black participants. In multilevel models accounting for age, the magnitude of associations of GRS-BMI with BMI were larger for more recent birth cohorts. For example, among white participants, each unit higher GRS-BMI was associated with a difference in BMI of 1.37 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.80) if born after 1943, and 0.17 (95% CI, -0.55 to 0.89) if born before 1924 (P = .006). For black participants, each unit higher GRS-BMI was associated with a difference in BMI of 3.70 (95% CI, 2.42 to 4.97) if born after 1943, and 1.44 (95% CI, -1.40 to 4.29) if born before 1924.

**CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: **For participants born between 1900 and 1958, the magnitude of association between BMI and a genetic risk score for BMI was larger among persons born in later cohorts. This suggests that associations of known genetic variants with BMI may be modified by obesogenic environments.

The Health and Retirement Study was designed to evaluate changes in health and labor force participation during and after the transition from working to retirement. Every 2 years, participants provided information about their self-rated health (SRH), body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and other characteristics. Our goal was to assess the effects of smoking and gender on trajectories of change in BMI and SRH over time. Joint longitudinal analysis of outcome measures is preferable to separate analyses because it allows to account for the correlation between the measures, to test the effects of predictors while controlling type I error, and potentially to improve efficiency. However, because SRH is an ordinal measure while BMI is continuous, formulating a joint model and parameter estimation is challenging. A joint correlated probit model allowed us to seamlessly account for the correlations between the measures over time. Established estimating procedures for such models are based on quasi-likelihood or numerical approximations that may be biased or fail to converge. Therefore, we proposed a novel expectation-maximization algorithm for parameter estimation and a Monte Carlo bootstrap approach for standard errors approximation. Expectation-maximization algorithms have been previously considered for combinations of binary and/or continuous repeated measures; however, modifications were needed to handle combinations of ordinal and continuous responses. A simulation study demonstrated that the algorithm converged and provided approximately unbiased estimates with sufficiently large sample sizes. In the Health and Retirement Study, male gender and smoking were independently associated with steeper deterioration in self-rated health and with lower average BMI. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

VL - 35 UR - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27222058 IS - 23 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Muscle Strength, Physical Activity, and Functional Limitations in Older Adults with Central Obesity. JF - Journal of Aging Research Y1 - 2016 A1 - Cassandra M. Germain A1 - Batsis, John A. A1 - Vasquez, Elizabeth A1 - McQuoid, Douglas R. KW - Activities of Daily Living KW - BMI KW - Disabilities KW - Obesity AB - Background. Obesity and muscle weakness are independently associated with increased risk of physical and functional impairment in older adults. It is unknown whether physical activity (PA) and muscle strength combined provide added protection against functional impairment. This study examines the association between muscle strength, PA, and functional outcomes in older adults with central obesity. Methods. Prevalence and odds of physical (PL), ADL, and IADL limitation were calculated for 6,388 community dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 with central obesity. Individuals were stratified by sex-specific hand grip tertiles and PA. Logistic models were adjusted for age, education, comorbidities, and body-mass index and weighted. Results. Overall prevalence of PL and ADL and IADL limitations were progressively lower by grip category. Within grip categories, prevalence was lower for individuals who were active than those who were inactive. Adjusted models showed significantly lower odds of PL OR 0.42 [0.31, 0.56]; ADL OR 0.60 [0.43, 0.84], and IADL OR 0.46 [0.35, 0.61] for those in the highest grip strength category as compared to those in the lowest grip category. Conclusion. Improving grip strength in obese elders who are not able to engage in traditional exercise is important for reducing odds of physical and functional impairment. VL - 2016 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27034833?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Prevalence of weakness and its relationship with limitations based on the Foundations for the National Institutes for Health project: data from the Health and Retirement Study. JF - European journal of clinical nutrition Y1 - 2016 A1 - Batsis, John A. A1 - Cassandra M. Germain A1 - Vasquez, Elizabeth A1 - Bartels, S. J. KW - BMI KW - Disabilities KW - Self-efficacy AB -**BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: **The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of muscle weakness using the two 2014 Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) Sarcopenia Project criteria and its relationship with physical limitations, basic activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL.

**SUBJECTS/METHODS: **We performed a cross-sectional analysis of community-dwelling adults from the Health and Retirement Study 2006-2008 and identified a subsample of 5092 adults aged ⩾60 years with grip strength (GS) data. Self-reported physical limitations, basic ADL and instrumental ADL were assessed. Criteria for GS (men<26 kg; women <16 kg) and GS adjusted for body mass index (GS/BMI; men <1.0; women <0.56) were applied to the sample. We determined the prevalence of muscle weakness in each sex. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the association of physical limitations, basic ADL and instrument ADL with weakness definitions in each sex.

**RESULTS: **Mean age was 72.1 years (54.9% female). Mean GS was 38.3 and 22.9 kg and mean BMI was 29 kg/m(2), respectively, in men and women. Weakness prevalence using GS and GS:BMI definitions were 7.8 and 15.2 (P<0.001), respectively, in men and 11.4 and 13.3% (P=0.04) in women. Overall prevalence of physical limitations, basic ADL limitations and instrumental ADL limitations was 52.9, 28.1 and 35.9%, respectively. In those with weakness, prevalence of physical limitations, basic ADL and instrumental ADL was 78.5, 42.3 and 65.3%, respectively, using the GS definition, and 79.7, 40.7 and 58.8%, respectively, using the GS/BMI definition. GS and the GS/BMI definitions of weakness were strongly associated with physical limitations (odds ratio (OR) 2.19 (95% confidence interval (CI): (1.67-2.87)) and 2.52 (2.01-3.17)), basic ADL (OR 1.59 (1.22-2.07) and 1.66 (1.32-2.07)) and instrumental ADLs (OR 1.98 (1.28-2.54) and 1.78 (1.44-2.20)).

**CONCLUSIONS: **The new FNIH guidelines for weakness are associated with higher prevalence of physical limitations, basic ADL impairments and instrumental ADL impairments as compared with individuals without weakness.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 1 June 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.90.

Polymorphisms rs6232 and rs6234/rs6235 in PCSK1 have been associated with extreme obesity [e.g. body mass index (BMI) ≥ 40 kg/m(2)], but their contribution to common obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and BMI variation in a multi-ethnic context is unclear. To fill this gap, we collected phenotypic and genetic data in up to 331 175 individuals from diverse ethnic groups. This process involved a systematic review of the literature in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and the NIH GWAS catalog complemented by data extraction from pre-existing GWAS or custom-arrays in consortia and single studies. We employed recently developed global meta-analytic random-effects methods to calculate summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) or beta estimates and standard errors (SE) for the obesity status and BMI analyses, respectively. Significant associations were found with binary obesity status for rs6232 (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.24, P = 6.08 × 10(-6)) and rs6234/rs6235 (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10, P = 3.00 × 10(-7)). Similarly, significant associations were found with continuous BMI for rs6232 (β = 0.03, 95% CI 0.00-0.07; P = 0.047) and rs6234/rs6235 (β = 0.02, 95% CI 0.00-0.03; P = 5.57 × 10(-4)). Ethnicity, age and study ascertainment significantly modulated the association of PCSK1 polymorphisms with obesity. In summary, we demonstrate evidence that common gene variation in PCSK1 contributes to BMI variation and susceptibility to common obesity in the largest known meta-analysis published to date in genetic epidemiology.

VL - 24 IS - 12 ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology. JF - Nature Y1 - 2015 A1 - Locke, Adam E A1 - Kahali, Bratati A1 - Berndt, Sonja I A1 - Justice, Anne E A1 - Pers, Tune H A1 - Day, Felix R A1 - Powell, Corey A1 - Vedantam, Sailaja A1 - Buchkovich, Martin L A1 - Yang, Jian A1 - Croteau-Chonka, Damien C A1 - Tõnu Esko A1 - Fall, Tove A1 - Ferreira, Teresa A1 - Gustafsson, Stefan A1 - Kutalik, Zoltán A1 - Luan, Jian'an A1 - Mägi, Reedik A1 - Randall, Joshua C A1 - Winkler, Thomas W A1 - Andrew R Wood A1 - Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie A1 - Jessica D. Faul A1 - Jennifer A. 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Slagboom A1 - Snieder, Harold A1 - Tim D Spector A1 - Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A1 - Stumvoll, Michael A1 - Tuomilehto, Jaakko A1 - André G Uitterlinden A1 - Uusitupa, Matti A1 - van der Harst, Pim A1 - Walker, Mark A1 - Wallaschofski, Henri A1 - Wareham, Nicholas J A1 - Watkins, Hugh A1 - David R. Weir A1 - Wichmann, H-Erich A1 - Wilson, James F A1 - Zanen, Pieter A1 - Ingrid B. Borecki A1 - Deloukas, Panos A1 - Fox, Caroline S A1 - Heid, Iris M A1 - O'Connell, Jeffrey R A1 - Strachan, David P A1 - Stefansson, Kari A1 - Cornelia M van Duijn A1 - Gonçalo Abecasis A1 - Lude L. Franke A1 - Timothy M. Frayling A1 - McCarthy, Mark I A1 - Peter M Visscher A1 - Scherag, Andre A1 - Willer, Cristen J A1 - Boehnke, Michael A1 - Mohlke, Karen L A1 - Lindgren, Cecilia M A1 - Beckmann, Jacques S A1 - Barroso, Inês A1 - North, Kari E A1 - Ingelsson, Erik A1 - Joel Hirschhorn A1 - Ruth J F Loos A1 - Speliotes, Elizabeth K KW - Age Factors KW - BMI KW - Continental Population Groups KW - Energy Metabolism KW - Europe KW - Female KW - Genome-Wide Association Study KW - Glutamic Acid KW - Humans KW - Insulin KW - Male KW - Obesity KW - Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide KW - Quantitative Trait Loci KW - Synapses AB -Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ∼2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.

VL - 518 IS - 7538 U1 - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25673413?dopt=Abstract ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Genetic vulnerability to diabetes and obesity: does education offset the risk? JF - Social Science & Medicine Y1 - 2015 A1 - Sze Y Liu A1 - Stefan Walter A1 - Jessica R. Marden A1 - David H. Rehkopf A1 - Laura D. Kubzansky A1 - Nguyen, T. A1 - M. Maria Glymour KW - BMI KW - Education KW - Genetics KW - Obesity KW - Older Adults KW - Risk Factors AB -The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity has recently increased dramatically. These common diseases are likely to arise from the interaction of multiple genetic, socio-demographic and environmental risk factors. While previous research has found genetic risk and education to be strong predictors of these diseases, few studies to date have examined their joint effects. This study investigates whether education modifies the association between genetic background and risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. Using data from non-Hispanic Whites in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, n = 8398), we tested whether education modifies genetic risk for obesity and T2D, offsetting genetic effects; whether this effect is larger for individuals who have high risk for other (unobserved) reasons, i.e., at higher quantiles of HbA1c and BMI; and whether effects differ by gender. We measured T2D risk using Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level, and obesity risk using body-mass index (BMI). We constructed separate genetic risk scores (GRS) for obesity and diabetes respectively based on the most current available information on the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) confirmed as genome-wide significant predictors for BMI (29 SNPs) and diabetes risk (39 SNPs). Linear regression models with years of schooling indicate that the effect of genetic risk on HbA1c is smaller among people with more years of schooling and larger among those with less than a high school (HS) degree compared to HS degree-holders. Quantile regression models show that the GRS × education effect systematically increased along the HbA1c outcome distribution; for example the GRS × years of education interaction coefficient was -0.01 (95% CI = -0.03, 0.00) at the 10th percentile compared to -0.03 (95% CI = -0.07, 0.00) at the 90th percentile. These results suggest that education may be an important socioeconomic source of heterogeneity in responses to genetic vulnerability to T2D.

VL - 127 UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953614005760 ER -