|Title||Perceived Discrimination Trajectories and Depressive Symptoms Among Middle-Aged And Older Black Adults|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2020|
|Authors||White, K, Bell, BA, Huang, SJ, Williams, DR|
|Journal||Innovation in Aging|
|Keywords||Cumulative Inequality, Life-course perspective, Mental Health, Minority aging, Race/ethnicity, Racial Discrimination|
Perceived discrimination is a risk factor for poor mental health. However, most studies measure discrimination at one time point, which does not account for heterogeneity in the cumulative patterning of exposure to discrimination. To address this gap, we examine the association between discrimination trajectories and depressive symptoms among black middle-aged and older adults.Data were analyzed from a subsample of black Health and Retirement Study respondents (2006 – 2018, N = 2,926, 50+). General discrimination and racial discrimination trajectories were constructed based on the Everyday Discrimination Scale using repeated measures latent profile analyses. We examined the extent to which the association between discrimination trajectories are differentially associated with depressive symptoms (8-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression scale) using negative binomial regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Effect modification by age and gender was tested.Individuals in the persistently high (IRR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.49, 1.95) and moderate general discrimination trajectories (IRR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.33), were more likely to have elevated depressive symptoms in comparison to those in the persistently low trajectory. This relationship was strongest among older adults aged 65+. Respondents in the persistently high racial discrimination trajectory (IRR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.29, 1.73) had higher risk of elevated depressive symptoms in comparison to respondents in the persistently low trajectory. Sensitivity analyses indicated that there was an independent association between persistently high racial discrimination trajectory class and elevated depressive symptoms, after adjusting for racial discrimination measured at a single time point.Characterizing longitudinal patterns of perceived discrimination may facilitate the stratification of mental health risk and vulnerability among black middle-aged and older adults. Trajectories of racial discrimination may inform risk of worse depressive symptoms more accurately than a single assessment of discrimination.
|PubMed Central ID||PMC7724643|