|Title||Lifestyle Characteristics Among People With Diabetes and Prediabetes|
|Publication Type||Book Chapter|
|Year of Publication||2018|
|Authors||Ogilvie, RP, Zabetian, A, Mokdad, AH, Narayan, KMVenkat|
|Book Title||Diabetes in America|
|Publisher||National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease|
This chapter describes lifestyle characteristics of the diabetes population in the United States, including information on dietary habits, physical activity, smoking, and health-seeking behaviors. In general, data indicate that many people with diabetes, like the rest of the U.S. population, are not meeting dietary recommendations, especially for fruits and vegetables, where only about one-quarter are consuming the suggested amount. Fruits, vegetables, and percent calories from macronutrients are measured most frequently, while micronutrients are rarely examined in national studies. Overall, only one-third of people with diabetes meet physical activity recommendations, and people with diabetes engage in less physical activity than those without diabetes. According to nationally representative data, people who smoke comprise about one-fifth of the diabetes population compared to a slightly higher proportion of smokers among those without diabetes. There has been a decreasing trend in the proportion of smokers among people with and without diabetes, ranging from a high of 35.6% in the 1970s to a low of 19.9% in the 1990s. The available published national data on health-seeking behaviors among people with diabetes suggest a greater percentage of people with diabetes have reduced their intake of high fat foods, received advice to quit smoking, visited a physician regularly, and changed their physical activity than those without diabetes, although most people reported engaging in these behaviors regardless of diabetes status. Across diabetes status groups, most people report that they are practicing weight control. This comprehensive review and compilation of data on lifestyle characteristics among people with diabetes demonstrates that healthy lifestyle behaviors are not at optimal rates in America’s diabetes population. Although a number of lifestyle education programs have been designed and implemented in the country since Diabetes in America’s last publication, more creative ideas are still necessary for sustainable, efficient, and cost-effective national programs.