|Title||What Explains Low Old-Age Income? Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study|
|Year of Publication||2021|
|Authors||Mitchell, OS, Clark, RL, Lusardi, A|
|Series Title||NBER Working Paper|
|Institution||National Bureau of Economic Research|
|Keywords||Income, retirement savings, Social Security|
We examine respondents in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to observe how their financial situations unfolded as they aged. We focus on low income older adults and follow them over time to identify the factors associated with having low income at baseline and thereafter. We find that (a) real income remained relatively stable as individuals approach and enter retirement, and progress through their retirement years, and (b) labor force participation declined and thus earnings became less important with age, while Social Security and retirement savings rose as a proportion of annual income.