|Title||The relationship between financial hardship and incident diabetic kidney disease in older US adults - a longitudinal study.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2021|
|Authors||Corwin, TR, Ozieh, MN, Garacci, E, Palatnik, A, Egede, LE|
|Keywords||Diabetes, Financial hardship|
BACKGROUND: Financial hardship is associated with poor health, however the association of financial hardship and incident diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is unknown. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationship between financial hardship and incident DKD among older adults with diabetes.
METHODS: Analyses were conducted in 2735 adults age 50 or older with diabetes and no DKD using four waves of data (2006-2012) from the Health and Retirement Study, a national longitudinal cohort. The primary outcome was incident DKD. Financial hardship was based on three measures: 1) difficulty paying bills; 2) food insecurity; and 3) cost-related medication non-adherence using validated surveys. A dichotomous financial hardship variable (0 vs 1 or more) was constructed based on all three measures. Cox regression models were used to estimate the association between financial hardship, change in financial hardship experience and incident DKD adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, and comorbidities.
RESULTS: During the median follow-up period of 4.1 years, incident DKD rate was higher in individuals with versus without financial hardship (41.2 versus 27/1000 person years). After adjustment, individuals with financial hardship (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.04-1.68) had significantly increased likelihood of developing DKD compared to individuals without financial hardship. Persistent financial hardship (adjusted HR 1.52 95% CI 1.06-2.18) and negative financial hardship (adjusted HR 1.54 95% CI 1.02-2.33) were associated with incident DKD compared with no financial hardship experience. However, positive financial hardship was not statistically significant in unadjusted and adjusted (adjusted HR 0.89 95% CI 0.55-1.46) models. Cost-related medication non-adherence (adjusted HR 1.43 95% CI 1.07-1.93) was associated with incident DKD independent of other financial hardship measures.
CONCLUSIONS: Financial hardship experience is associated with a higher likelihood of incident DKD in older adults with diabetes. Future studies investigating factors that explain the relationship between financial hardship and incident DKD are needed.
|PubMed Central ID||PMC8101204|