|Title||How Much Does Social Security Offset the Motherhood Penalty?|
|Year of Publication||2021|
|Authors||Rutledge, MS, Zulkarnain, A, King, SEllen|
|Institution||Center for Retirement Research at Boston College|
|City||Chestnut Hill, MA|
|Keywords||Motherhood, Social Security|
When women become mothers, their labor market income often takes a substantial hit. This “motherhood earnings penalty” becomes even larger with each additional child and permanently reduces earnings throughout mothers’ worklives. Previous studies have linked the penalty to mothers’ reduced educational attainment, more time out of the workforce, higher job search costs, and poor job matches.