|Title||The Association between Multiple Chronic Conditions and Depressive Symptoms: Intersectional Distinctions by Race, Nativity, and Gender.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2021|
|Authors||Erving, CL, Frazier, C|
|Journal||Journal of Health and Social Behavior|
|Keywords||cumulative disadvantage, depression, Intersectionality, Multiple Chronic Conditions|
Using random coefficient growth curve analysis, this study utilizes 12 waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study (1994-2016; person-waves = 145,177) to examine the association between multiple chronic conditions (MCC) and depressive symptoms among older adults. Applying cumulative disadvantage and intersectionality theories, we also test whether the association between MCC and depressive symptoms differs by race, nativity, and gender. Findings reveal that MCC prevalence is highest among U.S.-born black women, whereas depressive symptoms are highest among foreign-born Hispanic women. Compared to men, MCC has a stronger effect on women's depressive symptoms. Furthermore, the MCC-depressive symptoms association is strongest for foreign-born Hispanic women. Despite an increase in MCC in the transition from midlife to late life, all race-nativity-gender groups experience a decline in depressive symptoms as they age. The decline in depressive symptoms is steepest for U.S.-born black and foreign-born Hispanic women. Study implications are discussed.