|Title||Multiple Reasons for Perceived Everyday Discrimination and All-Cause Mortality Risk Among Older Black Adults.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2022|
|Authors||Cobb, RJ, Sheehan, CM, Louie, P, Erving, CL|
|Journal||The Journals of Gerontology: Series A|
|Keywords||Aging, Black Americans, Discrimination, Mortality|
BACKGROUND: The present study assessed whether reporting multiple reasons for perceived everyday discrimination was associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality risk among older Black adults.
METHODS: This study utilized data from a subsample of older Black adults from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative panel study of older adults in the United States. Our measure of multiple reasons for perceived everyday discrimination was based on self-reports from the 2006/2008 HRS waves. Respondents' vital status was obtained from the National Death Index and reports from key household informants (spanning 2006-2019). Cox proportional hazard models, which accounted for covariates linked to mortality, were used to estimate the risk of all-cause mortality.
RESULTS: During the observation period, 563 deaths occurred. Twenty percent of Black adults attributed perceived everyday discrimination to three or more sources. In demographic adjusted models, attributing perceived everyday discrimination to three or more sources was a statistically significant predictor of all-cause mortality risk (hazard ratio= 1.45; 95%, confidence interval=1.12 - 1.87). The association remained significant (hazard ratio=1.49, 95%, confidence interval=1.15 - 1.93) after further adjustments for health, behavioral, and economic characteristics.
CONCLUSION: Examining how multiple reasons for perceived everyday discrimination relate to all-cause mortality risk has considerable utility in clarifying the unique contributions of perceived discrimination to mortality risk among older Black adults. Our findings suggest that multiple reasons for perceived everyday discrimination are a particularly salient risk factor for mortality among older Black adults.