|Title||Long-term functional outcomes and mortality after hospitalization for extracranial hemorrhage|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2022|
|Authors||Parks, AL, Jeon, SY, W. Boscardin, J, Steinman, MA, Smith, AK, Covinsky, KE, Fang, MC, Shah, SJ|
|Journal||Journal of Hospital Medicine|
|Keywords||extracranial hemorrhage, functional independence, Hospitalization, Mortality, Survival|
Background The effects of extracranial hemorrhage (ECH), or bleeding outside the brain, are often considered transient. Yet, there are few data on the long-term and functional consequences of ECH. Objective Define the association of ECH hospitalization with functional independence and survival in a nationally representative cohort of older adults. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Settings and Participants Data from the Health and Retirement Study from 1995 to 2016, a nationally representative, biennial survey of older adults. Adults aged 66 and above with Medicare linkage and at least 12 months of continuous Medicare Part A and B enrollment. Intervention Hospitalization for ECH. Main Outcomes and Measures Adjusted odds ratios and predicted likelihood of independence in all activities of daily living (ADLs), independence in all instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and extended nursing home stay. Adjusted hazard ratio and predicted likelihood for survival. Results In a cohort of 6719 subjects (mean age 77, 59% women) with average follow-up time of 8.3 years (55,767 person-years), 736 (11%) were hospitalized for ECH. ECH was associated with a 15% increase in ADL disability, 15% increase in IADL disability, 8% increase in nursing home stays, and 4% increase in mortality. After ECH, subjects became disabled and died at the same annual rate as pre-ECH but never recovered to pre-ECH levels of function. In conclusion, hospitalization for ECH was associated with significant and durable declines in independence and survival. Clinical and research efforts should incorporate the long-term harms of ECH into decision-making and strategies to mitigate these effects.