Long-term weight change and its temporal relation to later-life dementia in the Health and Retirement Study.

TitleLong-term weight change and its temporal relation to later-life dementia in the Health and Retirement Study.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsShen, J, Chen, H, Zhou, T, Zhang, S, Huang, L, Lv, X, Ma, Y, Zheng, Y, Yuan, C
JournalThe Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
ISSN Number1945-7197
KeywordsDementia, physical frailty, prospective cohort, Weight Change

BACKGROUND: Weight loss among middle and older adults has been associated with a higher risk of subsequent dementia. However, most of studies have limited follow-up time or suboptimal control for the potential influence of physical frailty (PF).

OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to investigate the long-term and temporal relation of weight change to risk of dementia among U.S. middle-aged and older adults.

METHODS: A total of 5985 participants aged 50 years and older were included from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). History of long-term weight change was calculated using nine repeated BMI measurements from 1992-2008. We then followed their dementia status from 2008 to 2018. Multivariable cox proportional hazard models were used.

RESULTS: During the study follow-up (mean = 7.54 years), a total of 682 (11.39%) dementia cases were documented. After controlling for basic demographic and lifestyle, participants with weight loss (median: -0.23 kg/m 2 per year) were at a significantly higher risk of dementia (HR = 1.60, 95% CI, 1.33, 1.92), compared with the stable-weight group (median: 0.11 kg/m 2 per year). This association was attenuated but remained strong and significant after further adjustment for PF (HR = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.30, 1.89). The significant association was observed for weight loss assessed approximately 14-18 years preceding dementia diagnosis (HR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.07, 1.58), and was consistent for that closer to diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS: Both recent and remote weight loss were associated with a higher risk of later-life dementia among middle-aged and older adults independent of the status of physical frailty.

Citation Key12370
PubMed ID35420682
PubMed Central IDPMC9202702