Hypertension and Diabetes Status by Patterns of Stress in Older Adults From the US Health and Retirement Study: A Latent Class Analysis.

TitleHypertension and Diabetes Status by Patterns of Stress in Older Adults From the US Health and Retirement Study: A Latent Class Analysis.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsFernandez, JR, Ishino, FAMontiel, Williams, F, Slopen, N, Forde, AT
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
ISSN Number2047-9980
KeywordsDiabetes Mellitus, ethnicity, Hypertension, Latent Class Analysis, Retirement

Background Hypertension and diabetes disproportionately affect older non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic adults in the United States. Chronic stress may partially explain these disparities. This study identified underlying stress profiles of older US adults, analyzed stress profiles in relation to hypertension and diabetes, examined the distribution of stress profiles by race and ethnicity, and assessed patterns of change in latent classes of stress over time. Methods and Results Latent class analysis was conducted with a nationally representative sample of older US adults who completed 3 waves of the HRS (Health and Retirement Study) (ie, 2010 [n=6863], 2014 [n=4995], and 2018 [n=3089]). Latent classes of stress in 2010 (ie, stress profiles) were identified using 15 indicators of unmet needs within 5 categories (ie, physiological, safety/security, belonging, esteem, and self-fulfillment). Hypertension and diabetes status were examined as outcomes of latent class membership at 3 time points, and race and ethnicity were examined in association with class membership, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. Finally, a latent transition analysis examined the stability of latent class membership and racial and ethnic differences in the patterns of stress profiles experienced from 2010 to 2018. Five classes were identified: Generally Unmet Needs (13% of sample), Generally Met Needs (42% of sample), Unmet Self-Efficacy/Goal Needs (12% of sample), Unmet Financial Needs (20% of sample), and Unmet Social Belonging Needs (13% of sample). Compared with the Generally Met Needs class, the Generally Unmet Needs class had higher odds of hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.80; [95% CI, 1.35-2.39]) and diabetes (OR, 1.94; [95% CI, 1.45-2.59]), and the Unmet Financial Needs class had higher odds of diabetes (OR, 1.50; [95% CI, 1.10-2.05]). Non-Hispanic Black participants compared with non-Hispanic White participants had higher odds of being members of the Generally Unmet Needs, Unmet Self-Efficacy/Goal Needs, and Unmet Financial Needs classes (OR, 2.70; [95% CI, 1.59-4.58]; OR, 1.99; [95% CI, 1.15-3.43]; and OR, 4.74; [95% CI, 3.32-6.76], respectively). Class membership remained relatively stable over time, with 93% of participants remaining in Generally Met Needs and 78% of participants remaining in Generally Unmet Needs across time points. Compared with non-Hispanic White participants, non-Hispanic Black participants had lower odds of Generally Met Needs class membership at any time point (OR, 0.60; [95% CI, 0.42-0.84]) and had lower odds of moving into the Generally Met Needs class and higher odds of moving into the Unmet Financial Needs class from 2010 to 2014 (OR, 0.33; [95% CI, 0.13-0.86]; and OR, 3.02; [95% CI, 1.16-7.87], respectively). Conclusions Underlying classes of stress based on unmet needs were associated with hypertension and diabetes status. Racial and ethnic differences were observed for both latent class membership and transitions between classes over time. Latent classes of stress associated with unmet needs, hypertension, and diabetes and the ability to transition between classes may explain the perpetuation of racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular health. Interventions targeting unmet needs may be used to confront these disparities.

Citation Key12547
PubMed ID35699190
PubMed Central IDPMC9238649