|Title||Impact of Chronic Conditions, Healthcare Utilization, and Demographics on Advance Care Planning.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||Forthcoming|
|Authors||Krishnappa, V, Ludwick, R, Sompalle, S, Baughman, KR|
|Journal||American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine|
|Keywords||Advance care planning, Chronic conditions, healthcare utilization, race, socioeconomic status|
Unraveling the intricacies of what factors influence advance care planning (ACP) is an ongoing research challenge. Research shows much ACP is crisis-based and takes place at the end of life. Complicating this late-stage approach may be demographic differences based on race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. We examined the relationship between demographic factors, chronic health conditions, and healthcare utilization in predicting who was most likely to engage in ACP activities, including designating a durable power of attorney for healthcare (DPOAHC), having a living will, and discussing wishes with family or others. We conducted a secondary analysis using 2018 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) exit data provided by a proxy for the deceased participant that matched the 2016 survey participant data (N = 884). Generalized linear mixed models were used for the analysis. The number of chronic health conditions and healthcare utilization were not associated with ACP activities, but several of the demographic variables showed strong associations. Participants who were female, white, older, and from a higher socioeconomic status were more likely to have engaged in ACP. People continue to defer ACP discussions and documentation end of life or when facing medical crises. More needs to be done to reach out to younger adults, racial minorities, and those with lower socioeconomic status to encourage them to engage in ACP.