|Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Population Attributable Risk of Dementia Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury in Civilians and Veterans.
|Year of Publication
|Gardner, RC, Bahorik, A, Kornblith, ES, Allen, IElaine, Plassman, BL, Yaffe, K
|Journal of Neurotrauma
|Dementia, systematic review, Traumatic Brain Injury, veteran
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an established risk factor for dementia. However, the magnitude of risk is highly variable across studies. Identification of sub-populations at highest risk, with careful consideration of potential sources of bias, is urgently needed to guide public health policy and research into mechanisms and treatments. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of risk of all-cause dementia after all-severity TBI. We assessed for effect of participant age and sex, veteran status, research methods, and region. The search window covered January 1990 to January 2019. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines. Thirty-two studies met inclusion criteria. Data were pooled using random effects models. Population attributable risk (PAR) of dementia due to TBI in the U.S. was calculated by sex and veteran status. Pooled risk ratio (RR) for dementia after TBI was 1.66 (95% confidence interval 1.42-1.93). Younger age, male sex, and studies from Asia were associated with significantly higher risk; veteran status was not. Risk of dementia associated with "head injury/trauma" was not significantly different from that associated with "TBI" diagnosis specifically. PAR of dementia due to TBI among U.S. veterans was twice that of the general U.S. population, largely due to the high prevalence of TBI exposure in the majority male veteran population. This meta-analysis found that TBI is associated with nearly 70% increased risk of dementia. Risk may be highest among younger adults, men, and cohorts in Asia. Efforts to prevent TBI and also to prevent post-TBI dementia are of high importance. Additionally, improved methods for diagnosing and tracking TBI on a public health level, such as national registries, may improve the quality and generalizability of future epidemiological studies investigating the association between TBI and dementia.