|Title||Pathways to reduced overnight hospitalizations in older adults: Evaluating 62 physical, behavioral, and psychosocial factors.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2022|
|Authors||Nakamura, JS, Oh, J, VanderWeele, TJ, Kim, ES|
|Keywords||Exercise, Health Care Costs, Hospitalization, Length of Stay|
As our society ages and healthcare costs escalate, researchers and policymakers urgently seek potentially modifiable predictors of reduced healthcare utilization. We aimed to determine whether changes in 62 candidate predictors were associated with reduced frequency, and duration, of overnight hospitalizations. We used data from 11,374 participants in the Health and Retirement Study-a national sample of adults aged >50 in the United States. Using generalized linear regression models with a lagged exposure-wide approach, we evaluated if changes in 62 predictors over four years (between t0;2006/2008 and t1;2010/2012) were associated with subsequent hospitalizations during the two years prior to t2 (2012-2014 (Cohort A) or 2014-2016 (Cohort B)). After robust covariate-adjustment, we observed that changes in some health behaviors (e.g., those engaging in frequent physical activity had 0.80 the rate of overnight hospital stays (95% CI [0.74, 0.87])), physical health conditions (e.g., those with cancer had 1.57 the rate of overnight hospital stays (95% CI [1.35, 1.82])), and psychosocial factors (e.g., those who helped friends/neighbors/relatives 100-199 hours/year had 0.73 the rate of overnight hospital stays (95% CI [0.63, 0.85])) were associated with subsequent hospitalizations. Findings for both the frequency, and duration, of hospitalizations were mostly similar. Changes in a number of diverse factors were associated with decreased frequency, and duration, of overnight hospitalizations. Notably, some psychosocial factors (e.g., informal helping) had effect sizes equivalent to or larger than some physical health conditions (e.g., diabetes) and health behaviors (e.g., smoking). These psychosocial factors are mostly modifiable and with further research could be novel intervention targets for reducing hospitalizations.
|PubMed Central ID||PMC9648713|