|Comparison of Cognitive and Physical Decline as Predictors of Depression Among Older Adults.
|Year of Publication
|Scher, C, Nepomnyaschy, L, Amano, T
|Journal of Applied Gerontology
|Activities of Daily Living, Cognitive Dysfunction, depression, Retirement, Risk Factors
Activities of daily living (ADL) limitations and cognitive impairment have been identified as key risk factors for depression among older adults. However, little has been done to compare the strength of these relationships. The current study describes the prevalence and compares the independent and joint associations of ADL and cognitive limitations with depression among older adults in the US. Analyses are based on a sample of 30,923 observations on 13,545 unique respondents from three waves (2012, 2014, and 2016) of the Health and Retirement Study. Linear and logistic multivariate regression models with random and individual fixed effects were estimated. Findings indicate that both cognitive and ADL limitations are associated with depression; however, across all models, ADL limitations have a much stronger association. Further, in our most rigorous models, having both limitations is not significantly different from having just ADL, and not cognitive, limitations.