|Title||Age-Related Trajectories of General Fluid Cognition and Functional Decline in the Health and Retirement Study: A Bivariate Latent Growth Analysis.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2023|
|Authors||Handing, EP, Jiao, Y, Aichele, S|
There have been few studies on associations between age-related declines in fluid cognition and functional ability in population-representative samples of middle-aged and older adults. We used a two-stage process (longitudinal factor analysis followed by structural growth modeling) to estimate bivariate trajectories of age-related changes in general fluid cognition (numeracy, category fluency, executive functioning, and recall memory) and functional limitation (difficulties in daily activities, instrumental activities, and mobility). Data came from the Health and Retirement Study (Waves 2010-2016; N = 14,489; ages 50-85 years). Cognitive ability declined on average by -0.05 SD between ages 50-70 years, then -0.28 SD from 70-85 years. Functional limitation increased on average by +0.22 SD between ages 50-70 years, then +0.68 SD from 70-85 years. Significant individual variation in cognitive and functional changes was observed across age windows. Importantly, cognitive decline in middle age (pre-age 70 years) was strongly correlated with increasing functional limitation ( = -.49, < .001). After middle age, cognition declined independently of change in functional limitation. To our knowledge, this is the first study to estimate age-related changes in fluid cognitive measures introduced in the HRS between 2010-2016.
|PubMed Central ID||PMC10144147|