|Title||Vision and Hearing Difficulties and life expectancy without ADL/IADL-limitations: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing and the Health and Retirement Study.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2023|
|Authors||Zaninotto, P, Maharani, A, Di Gessa, G|
|Journal||J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci|
BACKGROUND: Hearing and vision difficulties are some of the most common deficits experienced by older adults. Having either visual or hearing difficulty increases the risk of comorbidity, disability, and poor quality of life. So far, however, few studies have examined the association between vision and hearing difficulties on life expectancy without activities of daily living (ADL) instrumental ADL (IADL) limitations (LEWL).
METHODS: Data came from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the US from 2002 to 2013. The outcome was defined as reporting 2+ limitations with ADL/IADL. Life expectancy was estimated by discrete-time multistate life table models, for hearing and vision difficulty separately as well as for combined vision and hearing difficulties, by sex and age.
RESULTS: 13% of men in England and the US had ADL/IADL-limitations, whereas for women was 16% and 19% in England and the US. At all ages, either vision or hearing difficulty was associated with shorter LEWL compared to no difficulties. Dual sensory difficulty (vision and hearing) reduced LEWL by up to 12 years in both countries. At the ages of 50 and 60 in England, hearing difficulty was associated with fewer years lived without ADL/IADL-limitations than vision difficulty. In contrast, in the US, vision difficulty led to fewer years lived without ADL/IADL-limitations than hearing difficulty.
CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of strategies to reduce the prevalence and incidence of vision and hearing difficulties has the potential to increase the number of years spent without ADL/IADL-limitations.