|Title||Assessing out-of-pocket expenses and indirect costs for the Alzheimer disease continuum in the United States.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2023|
|Authors||Monfared, AAbbas Taha, Hummel, N, Chandak, A, Khachatryan, A, Zhang, Q|
|Journal||J Manag Care Spec Pharm|
The societal costs of Alzheimer disease (AD) are considerable. Cost data stratified by cost category (direct and indirect) and AD severity in the United States are limited. To describe out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses and indirect costs from unpaid caregiving and work impairment among patients with AD by severity and among patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a representative sample of the US population. Data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) were used. HRS respondents were included if they reported an AD diagnosis or were considered as having MCI based on their cognitive performance. MCI and AD severity staging was performed using a crosswalk from results of the modified Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status to the Mini-Mental State Examination. OOP expenses were assessed along with indirect costs (costs to caregivers from providing unpaid help and costs to employers). Sensitivity analyses were performed by varying assumptions of caregiver employment, missed workdays, and early retirement. Patients with AD were stratified by nursing home status, type of insurance, and income level. All cost calculations applied sampling weights. A total of 18,786 patients were analyzed. Patients with MCI (n = 17,885) and AD (n = 901) were aged 67.8 ± 10.7 and 80.9 ± 9.3 years, were 55.7% and 63.3% female, and were 28.3% and 0.9% employed, respectively. OOP expenses per patient per month increased with AD severity, ranging from $420 in mild to $903 in severe AD but were higher in MCI ($554) than in mild AD. Indirect costs to employers were similar across the AD continuum ($197-$242). Costs from unpaid caregiving generally increased by disease severity, from $72 (MCI) to $1,298 (severe AD). Total OOP and indirect costs increased by disease severity, from $869 (MCI) to $2,398 (severe AD). Sensitivity analysis assuming nonworking caregivers and zero costs to employers decreased the total OOP and indirect costs by 32%-53%. OOP expenses were higher for patients with AD who had private insurance ( < 0.01), had higher incomes ( < 0.01), or were in nursing homes ( < 0.01). Indirect costs to caregivers were lower for patients with AD in nursing homes ($600 vs $1,372, < 0.01). Total indirect costs were higher for patients with AD with lower incomes ($1,498 vs $1,136, < 0.01) and for those not in nursing homes ($1,571 vs $799, < 0.01). This study shows that OOP expenses and indirect costs increase with AD severity, OOP expenses increase with higher income, subscription of private insurance, and nursing home residency, and total indirect costs decrease with higher income and nursing home residency in the United States. This study was financially sponsored by Eisai. Drs Zhang and Tahami are employees of Eisai. Drs Chandak, Khachatryan, and Hummel are employees of Certara; Certara is a paid consultant to Eisai. The views expressed here are those of the authors and are not to be attributed to their respective affiliations. Laura De Benedetti, BSc, provided medical writing support to the manuscript; she is an employee of Certara.