The Prevalence and Trends of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Impairments in the United States from 2008-2018.

TitleThe Prevalence and Trends of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Impairments in the United States from 2008-2018.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsKnoll, K, Rhee, Y, Hamm, JM, Hammer, KDP, Heimbuch, H, Holloway, J, Jurivich, D, Lahr, P, McGrath, B, Parker, K, Robinson-Lane, S, Stover, E, Tomkinson, GR, McGrath, R
JournalJ Alzheimers Dis Rep
ISSN Number2542-4823

BACKGROUND: Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) are neuropsychological-driven tasks that are linked to cognitive dysfunction. Examining population-based IADL deficits may reveal insights for the presence of these impairments in the United States.

OBJECTIVE: This investigation sought to evaluate the prevalence and trends of IADL impairments in Americans.

METHODS: A secondary analysis of data from the 2006-2018 waves of the Health and Retirement Study was conducted. The overall unweighted analytic sample included 29,764 Americans aged≥50 years. Respondents indicated their ability to perform six IADLs: manage money, manage medications, use a telephone, prepare hot meals, shop for groceries, and use a map. Persons reporting difficulty or an inability to complete an individual IADL were considered as having a task-specific impairment. Similarly, those indicating difficulty or an inability to perform any IADL were classified as having an IADL impairment. Sample weights were utilized to generate nationally-representative estimates.

RESULTS: Having an impairment in using a map (2018 wave: 15.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 15.0-16.4) had the highest prevalence in individual IADLs regardless of wave examined. The overall prevalence of IADL impairments declined during the study period ( < 0.001) to 25.4% (CI: 24.5-26.2) in the 2018 wave. Older Americans and women had a consistently higher prevalence of IADL impairments compared to middle-aged Americans and men, respectively. The prevalence of IADL impairments was also highest among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks.

CONCLUSION: IADL impairments have declined over time. Continued surveillance of IADLs may help inform cognitive screening, identify subpopulations at risk of impairment, and guide relevant policy.

Citation Key13342
PubMed ID37220616
PubMed Central IDPMC10200247