|Title||Retirement and cardiovascular disease: a longitudinal study in 35 countries.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2023|
|Authors||Sato, K, Noguchi, H, Inoue, K, Kawachi, I, Kondo, N|
|Journal||Int J Epidemiol|
|Keywords||Cardiovascular disease, Retirement|
BACKGROUND: Many countries have been increasing their state pension age (SPA); nonetheless, there is little consensus on whether retirement affects the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study examined the associations of retirement with CVD and risk factors.
METHODS: We used harmonized longitudinal datasets from the Health and Retirement Study and its sister surveys in 35 countries. Data comprised 396 904 observations from 106 927 unique individuals aged 50-70 years, with a mean follow-up period of 6.7 years. Fixed-effects instrumental variable regressions were performed using the SPA as an instrument.
RESULTS: We found a 2.2%-point decrease in the risk of heart disease [coefficient = -0.022 (95% confidence interval: -0.031 to -0.012)] and a 3.0%-point decrease in physical inactivity [-0.030 (-0.049 to -0.010)] among retirees, compared with workers. In both sexes, retirement was associated with a decreased heart disease risk, whereas decreased smoking was observed only among women. People with high educational levels showed associations between retirement and decreased risks of stroke, obesity and physical inactivity. People who retired from non-physical labour exhibited reduced risks of heart disease, obesity and physical inactivity, whereas those who retired from physical labour indicated an increased risk of obesity.
CONCLUSIONS: Retirement was associated with a reduced risk of heart disease on average. Some associations of retirement with CVD and risk factors appeared heterogeneous by individual characteristics.
|Grant List||20K18931 / / Japan Society for the Promotion of Sciences /|