|Title||Income-Related Inequalities in Physical and Cognitive Health Domains Over the Later Life Course: Longitudinal Evidence From the U.S. (1992-2016).|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2023|
|Authors||Cheng, M, Sommet, N, Jopp, DS, Spini, D|
|Keywords||cognitive, Income, inequalities, physical|
This study aims to investigate changes in the income-health gradient over the later life course. We test the age-as-leveler, the cumulative advantage/disadvantage, and the persistent inequality pattern for physical and cognitive health domains, and analyze whether these patterns are gendered. We used HRS data (1992-2016) and Poisson growth curve models to predict multimorbidity (33,860 participants) as an indicator of physical health and memory (25,291 participants) as an indicator of cognitive health. We disentangled the within-participant from the between-participant effects. For multimorbidity, the income-health gradient weakened as individuals aged; whereas for memory, the income-health gradient strengthened as individuals aged. The cumulative advantage/disadvantage of higher/lower income on memory may be more pronounced among women than men. Findings were confirmed by sensitivity analyses. Findings suggest that the support for the age-as-leveler or cumulative advantage/disadvantage pattern may depend on health domains and the effect strength may depend on gender.