Race, everyday discrimination, and cognitive function in later life.

TitleRace, everyday discrimination, and cognitive function in later life.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsFerraro, KF, Zaborenko, CJ
JournalPLoS One
Volume18
Issue10
Paginatione0292617
ISSN Number1932-6203
KeywordsAdult, Black or African American, Cognition, ethnicity, Hispanic or Latino, Humans, Racism
Abstract

Discrimination is pernicious in many ways, but there are inconsistent findings regarding whether it is harmful to cognitive function in later life. To address the inconsistency, we use two closely related concepts of everyday discrimination to predict cognitive trajectories in a diverse sample. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we examine whether the frequency of discrimination, measured at baseline with six questions, is related to poorer cognitive function and change in function over time (2008-2016). Age at baseline ranged from 53 to 100. Growth curve models of initial cognitive function and change in function were estimated. Everyday global discrimination was associated with poorer initial cognition and slower declines over time, and these relationships were not moderated by race and ethnicity. By contrast, the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and cognition was moderated by race: more frequent everyday racial discrimination was associated with better initial cognitive function among Black adults but not among Hispanic and White adults. Discrimination is a multifaceted concept, and specific types of discrimination manifest lower or higher cognitive function during later life for White, Black, and Hispanic adults.

DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0292617
Citation Key13608
PubMed ID37878577
PubMed Central IDPMC10599523
Grant ListRF1 AG043544 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
RF1 AG068388 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States