Initiation of Antihypertensive Medication from Midlife on Incident Dementia: The Health and Retirement Study.

TitleInitiation of Antihypertensive Medication from Midlife on Incident Dementia: The Health and Retirement Study.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsWei, J, Xu, H, Zhang, D, Tang, H, Wang, T, Steck, SE, Divers, J, Zhang, J, Merchant, AT
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD
ISSN Number1875-8908
KeywordsAntihypertensive Agents, Cognition, Humans, Hypertension, Retirement, Risk Factors

BACKGROUND: Hypertension has been identified as a risk factor of dementia, but most randomized trials did not show efficacy in reducing the risk of dementia. Midlife hypertension may be a target for intervention, but it is infeasible to conduct a trial initiating antihypertensive medication from midlife till dementia occurs late life.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to emulate a target trial to estimate the effectiveness of initiating antihypertensive medication from midlife on reducing incident dementia using observational data.

METHODS: The Health and Retirement Study from 1996 to 2018 was used to emulate a target trial among non-institutional dementia-free subjects aged 45 to 65 years. Dementia status was determined using algorithm based on cognitive tests. Individuals were assigned to initiating antihypertensive medication or not, based on the self-reported use of antihypertensive medication at baseline in 1996. Observational analog of intention-to-treat and per-protocol effects were conducted. Pooled logistic regression models with inverse-probability of treatment and censoring weighting using logistic regression models were applied, and risk ratios (RRs) were calculated, with 200 bootstrapping conducted for the 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

RESULTS: A total of 2,375 subjects were included in the analysis. After 22 years of follow-up, initiating antihypertensive medication reduced incident dementia by 22% (RR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.99). No significant reduction of incident dementia was observed with sustained use of antihypertensive medication.

CONCLUSION: Initiating antihypertensive medication from midlife may be beneficial for reducing incident dementia in late life. Future studies are warranted to estimate the effectiveness using large samples with improved clinical measurements.

Citation Key13632
PubMed ID37424471
Grant ListU01 AG009740 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States