Prevalence and Trends of Weakness Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in the United States.

TitlePrevalence and Trends of Weakness Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in the United States.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsMcGrath, R, FitzSimmons, S, Andrew, S, Black, K, Bradley, A, Christensen, BK, Collins, K, Klawitter, L, Kieser, J, Langford, M, Orr, M, Hackney, KJ
JournalJournal of strength and conditioning research
Volume37
Issue12
Pagination2484-2490
ISSN Number1533-4287
KeywordsAged, Body Mass Index, Female, Hand Strength, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Muscle Weakness, Prevalence, Retirement, United States
Abstract

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p>McGrath, R, FitzSimmons, S, Andrew, S, Black, K, Bradley, A, Christensen, BK, Collins, K, Klawitter, L, Kieser, J, Langford, M, Orr, M, and Hackney, KJ. Prevalence and trends of weakness among middle-aged and older adults in the United States. J Strength Cond Res 37(12): 2484-2490, 2023-Muscle weakness, which is often determined with low handgrip strength (HGS), is associated with several adverse health conditions; however, the prevalence and trends of weakness in the United States is not well-understood. We sought to estimate the prevalence and trends of weakness in Americans aged at least 50 years. The total unweighted analytic sample included 22,895 Americans from the 2006-2016 waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Handgrip strength was measured with a handgrip dynamometer. Men with weakness were below at least one of the absolute or normalized (body mass, body mass index) cut points: <35.5 kg, <0.45 kg/kg, <1.05 kg/kg/m 2 . The presence of any weakness in women was also identified as being below one of the absolute or normalized HGS cut points: <20.0 kg, <0.34 kg/kg, or <0.79 kg/kg/m 2 . There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of any weakness over time ( p < 0.001). The prevalence of weakness was 45.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 44.0-46.0) in the 2006-2008 waves and 52.6% (CI: 51.5-53.7) in the 2014-2016 waves. Weakness prevalence was higher for older (≥65 years) Americans (64.2%; CI: 62.8-65.5) compared with middle-aged (50-64 years) Americans (42.2%; CI: 40.6-43.8) in the 2014-2016 waves. Moreover, the prevalence of weakness in the 2014-2016 waves was generally higher in women (54.5%; CI: 53.1-55.9) than in men (50.4%; CI: 48.7-52.0). Differences existed in weakness prevalence across races and ethnicities. The findings from our investigation suggest that the prevalence of weakness is overall pronounced and increasing in Americans. Efforts for mitigating and better operationalizing weakness will elevate in importance as our older American population grows.

DOI10.1519/JSC.0000000000004560
Citation Key13641
PubMed ID37639680
Grant ListR15 AG072348 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States