The Role of Different Weakness Cut-Points for Future Cognitive Impairment in Older Americans.

TitleThe Role of Different Weakness Cut-Points for Future Cognitive Impairment in Older Americans.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsMcGrath, R, Tomkinson, GR, Hamm, JM, Juhl, K, Knoll, K, Parker, K, Smith, AE, Rhee, Y
JournalJournal of the American Directors Association
Volume24
Issue12
Pagination1936-1941.e2
ISSN Number1538-9375
KeywordsAged, Body Mass Index, Cognition, Cognitive Dysfunction, Female, Geriatric Assessment, Hand Strength, Humans, Male
Abstract

OBJECTIVES: New absolute and normalized handgrip strength (HGS) cut-points may not yield similar predictive value for cognitive performance. We sought to determine the associations of (1) each absolute and normalized weakness cut-point, and (2) compounding weakness on future cognitive impairment in older Americans.

DESIGN: Longitudinal panel.

SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The analytic sample included 11,116 participants aged ≥65 years from the 2006 to 2018 waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Participants from the Health and Retirement Study completed detailed interviews that included physical measures and core interviews.

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p>METHODS: The modified Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status assessed cognitive function and persons scoring <11 were classified as having a cognitive impairment. A handgrip dynamometer measured HGS. Men were considered weak if their HGS was <35.5 kg (absolute), <0.45 kg/kg (body mass normalized), or <1.05 kg (body mass index normalized), whereas women were classified as weak if their HGS was <20.0 kg, <0.337 kg/kg, or <0.79 kg. Compounding weakness included those below 1, 2, or all 3 cut-points. Generalized estimating equations quantified the associations.

RESULTS: Persons considered weak under the absolute cut-point had 1.62 (95% CI 1.34-1.96) greater odds for future cognitive impairment, but no significant associations were observed for those classified as weak under the body mass [odds ratio (OR) 1.12, CI 0.91-1.36] and body mass index normalized (OR 1.17, CI 0.95-1.43) cut-points. Older Americans below all 3 weakness cut-points had 1.47 (CI 1.15-1.88) greater odds for future cognitive impairment, but no significant associations were found for persons classified as weak under 1 (OR 1.08, CI 0.83-1.42) or 2 (OR 1.19, CI 0.91-1.55) cut-points.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our findings suggest that each weakness cut-point has differential prognostic value for future cognitive impairment, and aggregating weakness cut-points may improve their predictive utility. Consideration should be given to how weakness categories are uniquely linked to cognitive function.

DOI10.1016/j.jamda.2023.07.021
Citation Key13709
PubMed ID37634549