Association of perceived discrimination with the risk of depression among US older adults: A prospective population-based cohort study.

TitleAssociation of perceived discrimination with the risk of depression among US older adults: A prospective population-based cohort study.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2024
AuthorsWang, Y, Liao, J, Chen, H, Tao, L, Liu, J
JournalHeliyon
Volume10
Issue1
Paginatione23843
ISSN Number2405-8440
Keywordsdepression, Dose-response relationship, Older Adults, Perceived Discrimination
Abstract

AIMS: Association between perceived discrimination and depression has been demonstrated in some sources of discrimination, such as age, sex, and race. However, the effects of perceived discrimination both in any domain and each domain on development of depression are still unclear. We aimed to estimate the association of any and each domain of perceived discrimination with the risk of depression among US older adults.

METHODS: We did a population-based cohort study using eight waves (from 2006 to 2020) of data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative study of US older adults aged 51 years and above. Perceived discrimination was measured by the shortened 5-item version of Williams' discrimination scale, including five domains (less courtesy, service setting, not smart, threatened or harassed, and medical setting). Depressive symptoms were assessed with shortened 8-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Depression scale (8-item CES-D). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the crude and adjusted hazards ratio (HRs) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) between perceived discrimination and risk of depression, after controlling for potential confounders.

RESULTS: A total of 18502 participants were included in our final analyses. 42.8 % of them had any perceived discrimination at baseline, and the most prevalent perceived discrimination was feeling less courtesy, which was observed in 5893 people (31.6 %). During a median of 9.8 years follow-up, 44.7 % of participants developed depression. The risk of depression was 46 % (adjusted HR: 1.46, 95 % CI: 1.39-1.52) higher among people with perceived discrimination than those without. The associations between perceived discrimination in each domain and risk of depression were all prominent.

CONCLUSIONS: Both any and each domain of perceived discrimination were associated with an increased risk of depression. Considering the high prevalence of perceived discrimination and the following poor health outcomes, our findings suggested the integrated measures of providing public education and diversified communication to reduce discrimination, as well as accessible emotional supports to prevent depression are urgently needed.

DOI10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e23843
Citation Key13710
PubMed ID38226276
PubMed Central IDPMC10788503