Mediterranean diet and a health behavior index in relation to cardiovascular biomarkers: Data from the Health and Retirement Study

TitleMediterranean diet and a health behavior index in relation to cardiovascular biomarkers: Data from the Health and Retirement Study
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2024
AuthorsOrfanos, P, Benetou, V, Riza, E, Papassotiriou, I
JournalNutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases (NMCD)
KeywordsBiomarkers, Cardiovascular Inflammation, Dietary patterns, Mediterranean diet
Abstract

Background and aim
Although lifestyle factors have been repeatedly examined for their role on cardiovascular diseases, their composite effect has not been frequently explored. We aimed to investigate the relation of dietary patterns (DPs) and a health behavior index (HBI) with cardiovascular biomarkers.
Methods and results
A cross-sectional analysis with data from 3461 US residents, participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), was performed. Nutritional data were obtained with a food frequency questionnaire, while adherence to Mediterranean Diet (MD) was determined by the Mediterranean Diet Score. A posteriori DPs were estimated using principal component analysis and the HBI was constructed combining adherence to MD, smoking status, physical activity levels, alcohol consumption and body mass index. Multiple linear regression models were performed to examine the relation between DPs or HBI and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), cystatin C (Cys C), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and TC:HDL in blood.
Multiple linear regression showed that the “healthy” DP and the MD had a significant negative association with CRP and Cys C (p < 0.05), while the “Western-type” DP had a significant positive association with TC:HDL ratio, CRP and Cys C. Moreover, the HBI was positively associated with HDL (p < 0.05) and negatively associated with TC:HDL ratio, CRP and Cys C (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
Adherence to MD and to a healthy dietary pattern was negatively associated with biomarkers of inflammation, while the HBI was associated with a better cardiometabolic profile, assessed with blood biomarkers.

DOI10.1016/j.numecd.2024.01.004
Citation Key13738