Psychosocial stressors associated with frailty in community-dwelling older adults in the United States.

TitlePsychosocial stressors associated with frailty in community-dwelling older adults in the United States.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationForthcoming
AuthorsShakya, S, Silva, SG, McConnell, ES, McLaughlin, SJ, Cary, MP
JournalJournal of the American Geriatrics Society
ISSN Number1532-5415
KeywordsFrailty, psychosocial stressors, Social determinants of health
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Frailty is multifactorial; however, psychosocial stressors contributing to frailty are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine whether gender, race/ ethnicity, and education are associated with differential exposure to psychosocial stressors, determine psychosocial stressors contributing to frailty, and explore the mediating psychosocial stressors pathway.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 7679 community-dwelling older adults (≥65) from the Health and Retirement Study (2006 and 2008 waves). Psychosocial stressors such as loneliness, low subjective social status, financial strain, poor neighborhood cohesion, everyday discrimination, and traumatic life events were measured. Frailty was defined by the Fried phenotype measure. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the association of gender, race/ethnicity, and education with psychosocial stressors, psychosocial stressors associated with frailty, and the mediating psychosocial stressors pathway.

RESULTS: Females experienced greater financial strain but lower discrimination (both p < 0.05). Older adults who identified as Hispanic, Black, and racially or ethnically minoritized experienced low subjective social status, high financial strain, low neighborhood cohesion, and high discrimination than their White counterparts (all p < 0.05). Those with lower education experienced high loneliness, low subjective social status, high financial strain, low neighborhood cohesion but lower traumatic life events (all p < 0.05). Psychosocial stressors: High loneliness, low subjective social status, high financial strain, and low neighborhood cohesion (all p < 0.05) independently increased the odds of frailty. The mediating pathway of psychosocial stressors was not significant.  CONCLUSION: Disparities exist in exposure to psychosocial stressors associated with frailty. Multilevel interventions are needed to reduce the influence of psychosocial stressors on frailty.

DOI10.1111/jgs.18821
Citation Key13784
PubMed ID38391046