Association Between Coexisting Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Elevated C-Reactive Protein with Cardiovascular Disease in the Health and Retirement Study

TitleAssociation Between Coexisting Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Elevated C-Reactive Protein with Cardiovascular Disease in the Health and Retirement Study
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2024
AuthorsKaradimas, T, Meier, HCS
JournalUniversity of Michigan Undergraduate Research Journal
Volume17
KeywordsCardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, Hypertension, risk score
Abstract

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally. Hypertension and dyslipidemia are established CVD risk factors, but these diagnoses are often insufficient in predicting CVD individually. Inflammation has emerged as a contributor to CVD, but research on the combination of inflammation, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in CVD risk is limited. More thorough evaluations of CVD risk using all 3 aforementioned risk factors are crucial. Methods: This report analyzes data from the Health and Retirement Study, a representative cohort of US adults over 50 years of age (n = 1,527). Participants were classified as having prevalent CVD if they self-reported a healthcare provider’s diagnosis of either a heart condition or a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). We developed a CVD risk score using three factors known to contribute to CVD: hypertension, dyslipidemia, and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Risk was categorized as low (0-1 factors), medium (2 factors), or high (all 3 factors). Weighted logistic regression models estimated the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of CVD for medium and high-risk groups versus the low-risk group. Results: CVD prevalence in medium risk participants was not significantly different from low risk participants (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: [0.86 - 1.70]). After adjusting for age, high risk participants had significantly higher odds of CVD prevalence compared to participants with 0 or 1 of the risk factors (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: [1.26 - 2.74]). This association was robust to additional demographic adjustment for sex, race/ethnicity, obesity status, smoking status, and diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia. Conclusion: Co-occurrence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and elevated CRP was associated with CVD prevalence in a representative sample of older US adults. Our findings emphasize the importance of multifactor screening for CVD risk in clinical settings.

DOI10.3998/umurj.5512
Citation Key13820