Informal care provided in US nursing homes: Reduced from 2010 to 2021 and lower for Medicaid residents.

TitleInformal care provided in US nursing homes: Reduced from 2010 to 2021 and lower for Medicaid residents.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationForthcoming
AuthorsLi, Y, Cai, X, Kim, YYoon, Kim, J
JournalJournal of the American Geriatrics Society
ISSN Number1532-5415
KeywordsCOVID‐19, Family care, Informal care, Medicaid, nursing home, trend

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the trend of informal care (unpaid care provided by family or other caregivers) provided to nursing home residents before or during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study assessed this trend during 2010-2021, for all and Medicaid versus non-Medicaid residents.

METHODS: Using data from the RAND Health and Retirement Study longitudinal file, our study sample included a total of 2025 resident-years (860 for Medicaid and 1165 for non-Medicaid residents). We fit two-part regression models to determine adjusted trends in average amount of informal care over time, and difference by resident Medicaid status.

RESULTS: Informal care received by residents reduced substantially over time, from an average of 39.2 h in the past month of interview in 2010-11 to 23.2 h in 2018-19, and then to 11.2 h in the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-21). The reduced hours were due to both reduced percentages of nursing home residents who received any informal care and reduced hours of care among those who did receive it over time. Multivariable analyses confirmed this trend and similar downward trends for Medicaid versus non-Medicaid residents. Medicaid residents on average received 10.02 fewer hours of informal care per month (95% confidence interval -17.16, -2.87; p = 0.006) than non-Medicaid residents after adjustment for resident characteristics and time trends.

CONCLUSION: Informal care provided to nursing home residents during 2010-2021 reduced over time, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020-21). Medicaid residents tended to receive less informal care than non-Medicaid residents.

Citation Key13877
PubMed ID38572953
Grant List1RF1AG082992 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States