The dynamic and reciprocal relationship between perceived everyday discrimination and cognitive function in later life.

TitleThe dynamic and reciprocal relationship between perceived everyday discrimination and cognitive function in later life.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationForthcoming
AuthorsAmano, T, Jia, Y, Redding, A
JournalAging & Mental Health
Pagination1-11
ISSN Number1364-6915
Keywordscognitive function, cognitive theory, Health and Retirement Study (HRS), Perceived Discrimination, random intercept cross-lagged panel model (RI-CLPM), socioemotional selectivity theory
Abstract

OBJECTIVES: This study, based on socioemotional selectivity theory and cognitive theory, investigates the dynamic and reciprocal relationship between perceived discrimination and cognitive function in later life.

METHODS: Data were drawn from four waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS 2006, 2010, 2014, and 2018). A total of 4,125 people who were 51 and older were included. Cognitive function was measured by the telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS-27). Perceived discrimination was measured using scores of the perceived everyday discrimination scale. Random intercept cross-lagged panel model (RI-CLPM) was utilized. The model was adjusted for a range of covariates. Subgroup analysis by ethnoracial groups was conducted.

RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, while lower cognitive function was associated with higher perceived discrimination, this relationship was unidirectional. Longitudinally, higher perceived discrimination predicted lower cognitive function in later waves only among non-Hispanic White individuals.

CONCLUSION: Results suggested that a decline in cognitive function may precede and contribute to the worsening of perceived discrimination, which may result in further decline in cognitive function. Lifetime experience of discrimination was discussed as a possible source of the racial/ethnic variations in the relationship. Further study is needed to examine whether this relationship holds among people with cognitive impairment and dementia.

DOI10.1080/13607863.2024.2338196
Citation Key13885
PubMed ID38590239