Food Environments and Cardiovascular Disease: Evidence From the Health and Retirement Study.

TitleFood Environments and Cardiovascular Disease: Evidence From the Health and Retirement Study.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationForthcoming
AuthorsKim, Y, Rangel, J, Colabianchi, N
JournalAmerican Journal of Preventive Medicine
ISSN Number1873-2607
KeywordsCardiovascular health, food environments
Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Residential food environments are one of the important determinants of cardiovascular health. However, past literature has been limited by short-term follow-ups, time-invariant environmental measurements at baseline, and/or not investigating both healthy and unhealthy aspects of the food environment. This study examines the effects of time-varying healthy and unhealthy food environments on incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) over 10 years, extracting data from the Health and Retirement Study (2006-2016; N=10,413).

METHODS: Cox proportional hazards modeling was performed with inverse probability weighting to assess the association between time-varying food environmental measures (i.e., densities of grocery stores, supercenters/club stores, full-service restaurants, and fast-food restaurants) and incident CVD over 10 years. Education level and race/ethnicity were tested as potential moderators. Analyses were conducted in 2022-2023.

RESULTS: Race/ethnicity had a significant interaction effect with supercenters/club stores and indicated that a 1-standard-deviation increase in the density of supercenters/club stores was associated with a 6%-8% lower risk of incident CVD in non-Hispanic Black (HR=0.78, 95% CI=0.70-0.87) and Hispanic older adults (HR=0.69, 95% CI=0.50-0.96), but not non-Hispanic White older adults. Additionally, education had a significant interaction effect with full-service restaurants, indicating that a 1-standard-deviation increase in the density of full-service restaurants was associated with a 10% lower risk of incident CVD in individuals with 13+ years of schooling, but not those with 0-12 years of schooling.

CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that public policymakers should be aware of the benefits and nuances of varying food environment components as they can contribute to positive or negative cardiovascular health.

DOI10.1016/j.amepre.2024.03.004
Citation Key13895
PubMed ID38484903