Understanding the Relationship Between Wealth and Cognitive Function by Race/Ethnicity Among Older United States Adults with Diabetes.

TitleUnderstanding the Relationship Between Wealth and Cognitive Function by Race/Ethnicity Among Older United States Adults with Diabetes.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2024
AuthorsPapadimitriou, A, Dawson, AZ, Thorgerson, A, Bhandari, S, Martinez, M, Egede, LE
JournalJournal of Alzheimers Disease: JAD
Volume98
Issue3
Pagination1145-1155
ISSN Number1875-8908
KeywordsAdult, Aged, Alzheimer disease, Cognition, Cognitive Dysfunction, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, ethnicity, Humans, Middle Aged, United States
Abstract

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing with the burden disproportionately falling on older adults and racial/ethnic minorities. Older adults with diabetes show greater cognitive decline and there are disparities in cognitive function by race/ethnicity that can be explained by social determinants such as wealth.

OBJECTIVE: To understand whether there is a differential relationship between wealth and cognitive function by race/ethnicity among older U.S. adults with diabetes.

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p>METHODS: Data on 9,006 adults aged 50+ with diabetes from the Health and Retirement Study (2006-2016) were analyzed. The primary outcome, cognitive function, was a score ranging from range 0-27 categorized as: normal [12-27], mild cognitive impairment (MCI) [7-11], and dementia including Alzheimer's disease [0-6]. Three modeled outcomes were: 1) normal versus MCI, 2) normal versus dementia, 3) MCI versus dementia. Wealth was log transformed and used as continuous and binary (≥median, <median). Logistic generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the relationship between wealth and cognitive function and models were stratified by race/ethnicity. Models were adjusted for demographics, lifestyle, functional limitations, and comorbidities.

RESULTS: In adjusted models, greater wealth was significantly associated with lower odds of MCI and dementia for all groups. Similarly, having wealth less than the sample median was associated with higher odds of MCI and dementia compared to wealth≥sample median.

CONCLUSIONS: Increased wealth was significantly protective against MCI and dementia for all ethnic groups. Wealth less than the sample median was associated with greater odds of dementia for NHB and NHW.

DOI10.3233/JAD-231107
Citation Key13914
PubMed ID38489179