Achieving goal-concordant care: Formal and informal advance care planning for White, Black, and Hispanic older adults.

TitleAchieving goal-concordant care: Formal and informal advance care planning for White, Black, and Hispanic older adults.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of PublicationForthcoming
AuthorsLenko, RA, Hoffman, GJ, Robinson-Lane, SG, Silveira, MJ, Voepel-Lewis, T
JournalJournal of the American Geriatrics Society
ISSN Number1532-5415
KeywordsAdvance care planning, ethnicity, goal‐concordant care, race

INTRODUCTION: Advance care planning (ACP) aims to ensure that patients receive goal-concordant care (GCC), which is especially important for racially or ethnically minoritized populations at greater risk of poor end-of-life outcomes. However, few studies have evaluated the impact of advance directives (i.e., formal ACP) or goals-of-care conversations (i.e., informal ACP) on such care. This study aimed to examine the relationship between each of formal and informal ACP and goal-concordant end-of-life care among older Americans and to determine whether their impact differed between individuals identified as White, Black, or Hispanic.

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using 2012-2018 data from the biennial Health and Retirement Study. We examined the relationships of interest using two, separate multivariable logistic regression models. Model 1 regressed a proxy report of GCC on formal and informal ACP and sociodemographic and health-related covariates. Model 2 added interaction terms between race/ethnicity and the two types of ACP.

RESULTS: Our sample included 2048 older adults. There were differences in the proportions of White, Black, and Hispanic decedents who received GCC (83.1%, 75.3%, and 71.3%, respectively, p < 0.001) and in the use of each type of ACP by racial/ethnic group. In model 1, informal compared with no informal ACP was associated with higher odds of GCC (adjusted odds ratio = 1.38 [95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.82]). In model 2, Black decedents who had formal ACP were more likely to receive GCC than those who did not, but there were no statistically significant differences between decedents of different racial/ethnic groups who had no ACP, informal ACP only, or both types of ACP.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results build on previous work by indicating the importance of incorporating goals-of-care conversations into routine healthcare for older adults and encouraging ACP usage among racially and ethnically minoritized populations who use ACP tools at lower rates.

Citation Key13984
PubMed ID38760957
Grant ListU01 AG009740 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
T32NR016914 / NR / NINR NIH HHS / United States