Education and Psychosocial Functioning Among Older Adults: 4-Year Change in Sense of Control and Hopelessness.

TitleEducation and Psychosocial Functioning Among Older Adults: 4-Year Change in Sense of Control and Hopelessness.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsMitchell, UA, Ailshire, JA, Brown, LL, Levine, ME, Crimmins, EM
JournalJ Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci
Volume73
Issue5
Pagination849-859
Date Published2018 06 14
ISSN Number1758-5368
KeywordsActivities of Daily Living, Aged, Educational Status, Female, Humans, Internal-External Control, Male, Middle Aged, Psychology, Sadness, Social participation, Social Support
Abstract

Objectives: This study investigates education differences in levels and change in sense of control and hopelessness among older adults.

Method: We used data from the Health and Retirement Study, an ongoing biennial survey of a nationally representative sample of older Americans, to examine education differences in sense of control (e.g., mastery and perceived constraints) and hopelessness. Our sample included 8,495 adults aged 52 and older who were interviewed in 2006/2008 and 2010/2012. We assessed separate models for change in sense of control and hopelessness, accounting for recent changes in social circumstances and health status.

Results: Low mastery, perceived constraints, and hopelessness were highest among individuals with less than a high school education. Over a 4-year period, this group experienced the greatest declines in psychosocial functioning, as indicated by greater increases in low mastery, perceived constraints, and hopelessness. Education differences existed net of recent negative experiences, specifically the loss of intimate social relationships and social support and increases in disease and disability.

Discussion: These findings highlight the importance of education for sense of control and hopelessness in older adulthood and demonstrate the cumulative advantage of higher levels of education for psychosocial functioning.

URLhttp://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/03/23/geronb.gbw031.abstract
DOI10.1093/geronb/gbw031
User Guide Notes

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013537?dopt=Abstract

Endnote Keywords

Health and Retirement Study/Longitudinal analysis/Mastery/Perceived constraints

Endnote ID

999999

Alternate JournalJ Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci
Citation Key6510
PubMed ID27013537
PubMed Central IDPMC6283311
Grant ListR24 AG045061 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
U01 AG009740 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
T32 AG000037 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P30 AG043073 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P30 AG017265 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R00 AG039528 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States