Postretirement earnings relative to preretirement earnings: gender and racial differences.

TitlePostretirement earnings relative to preretirement earnings: gender and racial differences.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2006
AuthorsOzawa, MN, Hong, B-E
JournalJ Gerontol Soc Work
Date Published2006
ISSN Number0163-4372
KeywordsAge Factors, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Data collection, Employment, Female, Humans, Income, Male, Men, Minority Groups, Pensions, Retirement, Salaries and Fringe Benefits, Sex Factors, Social Security, Time Factors, United States, White People, women

As the social security program comes under increasing financial pressure in the coming decades, the federal government will encourage elderly people to continue to work. Data from the Social Security Administration indicate that earnings are already a sizable component of retirement income. But there is public concern about how women and minorities will fare economically in this changing policy environment. To what extent can women and minorities keep earning money after they reach retirement age? This article presents the results of a study that investigated the postretirement earnings, relative to the preretirement earnings, of women and minorities, and compared the results with those for men and whites. The major finding, based on regression analyses, was that women's postretirement earnings, relative to their preretirement earnings, were greater than those of men. Furthermore, the regression results indicate that nonwhites' postretirement earnings could not be predicted by their preretirement earnings or by any of the independent variables used in the study, including age, gender, education, marital status, number of children, occupation, and preretirement earnings.


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Employment/Retirement/WOMEN/Gender Differences/Labor Force Participation/Socioeconomic Status/Marital Status/Vulnerability/gerontology

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Alternate JournalJ Gerontol Soc Work
Citation Key7447
PubMed ID17062523