|Title||Gender differences in health: results from SHARE, ELSA and HRS.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2011|
|Authors||Crimmins, EM, Kim, JKi, Sole-Auro, A|
|Journal||European Journal of Public Health|
|Keywords||Activities of Daily Living, Aged, Aging, Body Weights and Measures, Chronic disease, ELSA, Employment, Female, Global Health, Health Behavior, Health Status, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Self Report, Sex Factors, SHARE|
BACKGROUND: We examine gender differences in health at ages 50 years and older in 11 European countries, England and the USA.
METHODS: We use the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement (SHARE) for 11 Continental European countries; the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) for the USA to examine gender differences in health behaviours, functioning problems, disability, disease prevalence and self-rated health.
RESULTS: Women in all countries are more likely than men to have disabling, non-lethal conditions including functioning problems [odds ratio (OR) indicating the effect of female is 1.57-2.43], IADL difficulties (OR 1.45-2.94), arthritis (OR 1.46-2.90) and depressive symptoms (OR 1.45-3.35). On the other hand, self-reported heart disease is more common among men (OR indicating effect of female ranges from 0.43 to 0.86). These differences are not eliminated by controlling for smoking behaviour and weight. Self-reported hypertension (OR 0.72-1.53) is generally more common among women; stroke and diabetes do not show consistent sex differences. While subjective assessment of health is poorer among women, this is not true when indicators of functioning, disability and diseases are controlled.
CONCLUSION: There is remarkable consistency in direction of gender differences in health across these 13 countries. The size of the differences is affected in many cases by the similarity in behaviours of men and women.
|Endnote Keywords|| |
cross-national comparison/gender Differences/ELSA_/SHARE/SELF-RATED HEALTH/health Behavior/disease prevalence/DISABILITY/DISABILITY
|Endnote ID|| |
|PubMed Central ID||PMC3023013|
|Grant List||P01 AG08291 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States |
U01 AG009740-13S2 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
Y1-AG-4553-01 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P01 AG005842 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
U01 AG009740 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P30 AG12816 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P30 AG017265-09 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P30 AG17265 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P30 AG017265 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
U01 AG09740-13S2 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States