Loneliness, health, and mortality in old age: a national longitudinal study.

TitleLoneliness, health, and mortality in old age: a national longitudinal study.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsLuo, Y, Hawkley, LC, Waite, LJ, Cacioppo, JT
JournalSoc Sci Med
Date Published2012 Mar
ISSN Number1873-5347
KeywordsAged, Aged, 80 and over, Aging, Cohort Studies, depression, Female, Health Behavior, Health Status, Humans, Interpersonal Relations, Loneliness, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Middle Aged, Mortality, Social Support, Socioeconomic factors, United States

This study examined the relationship between loneliness, health, and mortality using a U.S. nationally representative sample of 2101 adults aged 50 years and over from the 2002 to 2008 waves of the Health and Retirement Study. We estimated the effect of loneliness at one point on mortality over the subsequent six years, and investigated social relationships, health behaviors, and health outcomes as potential mechanisms through which loneliness affects mortality risk among older Americans. We operationalized health outcomes as depressive symptoms, self-rated health, and functional limitations, and we conceptualized the relationships between loneliness and each health outcome as reciprocal and dynamic. We found that feelings of loneliness were associated with increased mortality risk over a 6-year period, and that this effect was not explained by social relationships or health behaviors but was modestly explained by health outcomes. In cross-lagged panel models that tested the reciprocal prospective effects of loneliness and health, loneliness both affected and was affected by depressive symptoms and functional limitations over time, and had marginal effects on later self-rated health. These population-based data contribute to a growing literature indicating that loneliness is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality and point to potential mechanisms through which this process works.

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Endnote Keywords

Emotions/Emotions/Mortality/Clinical outcomes/Health behavior/Risk factors/Personal health/Older people

Endnote ID


Alternate JournalSoc Sci Med
Citation Key7692
PubMed ID22326307
PubMed Central IDPMC3303190
Grant ListR01-AG036433E01 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R37-AG030481 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R01-AG034052 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
Z99 RG999999 / ImNIH / Intramural NIH HHS / United States
R01 AG036433-02 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R01 AG034052-05 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R37 AG033590 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R01 AG034052 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R37 AG030481-05 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R01 AG036433 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R37 AG030481 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States