Higher rates of Clostridium difficile infection among smokers.

TitleHigher rates of Clostridium difficile infection among smokers.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsRogers, MAM, M. Greene, T, Saint, S, Chenoweth, CE, Malani, PN, Trivedi, I, Aronoff, DM
JournalPLoS One
Date Published2012
ISSN Number1932-6203
KeywordsClostridioides difficile, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Smoking, United States

OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking has been shown to be related to inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated whether smoking affected the probability of developing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).

METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of 16,781 older individuals from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study. Data were linked to files from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.

RESULTS: Overall, the rate of CDI in older individuals was 220.6 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 193.3, 248.0). Rates of CDI were 281.6/100,000 person-years in current smokers, 229.0/100,000 in former smokers and 189.1/100,000 person-years in never smokers. The odds of CDI were 33% greater in former smokers (95% CI: 8%, 65%) and 80% greater in current smokers (95% CI: 33%, 145%) when compared to never smokers. When the number of CDI-related visits was evaluated, current smokers had a 75% increased rate of CDI compared to never smokers (95% CI: 15%, 167%).

CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is associated with developing a Clostridium difficile infection. Current smokers have the highest risk, followed by former smokers, when compared to rates of infection in never smokers.

User Guide Notes


Endnote Keywords

cigarette smoking/inflammatory bowel disease/clostridium difficile infection/medicare

Endnote ID


Alternate JournalPLoS One
Citation Key7763
PubMed ID22848714
PubMed Central IDPMC3407081
Grant ListU01 AG009740 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
U19 AI090871 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
U01AG009740 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
5U19AI090871-02 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States