Higher rates of Clostridium difficile infection among smokers.

TitleHigher rates of Clostridium difficile infection among smokers.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsRogers, MAM, M Greene, T, Saint, S, Chenoweth, CE, Malani, PN, Trivedi, I, Aronoff, DM
JournalPLoS One
Date Published2012
ISSN Number1932-6203
KeywordsClostridium difficile, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Smoking, United States

<p><b>OBJECTIVES: </b>Cigarette smoking has been shown to be related to inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated whether smoking affected the probability of developing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).</p><p><b>METHODS: </b>We conducted a longitudinal study of 16,781 older individuals from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study. Data were linked to files from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.</p><p><b>RESULTS: </b>Overall, the rate of CDI in older individuals was 220.6 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 193.3, 248.0). Rates of CDI were 281.6/100,000 person-years in current smokers, 229.0/100,000 in former smokers and 189.1/100,000 person-years in never smokers. The odds of CDI were 33% greater in former smokers (95% CI: 8%, 65%) and 80% greater in current smokers (95% CI: 33%, 145%) when compared to never smokers. When the number of CDI-related visits was evaluated, current smokers had a 75% increased rate of CDI compared to never smokers (95% CI: 15%, 167%).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS: </b>Smoking is associated with developing a Clostridium difficile infection. Current smokers have the highest risk, followed by former smokers, when compared to rates of infection in never smokers.</p>

User Guide Notes


Endnote Keywords

cigarette smoking/inflammatory bowel disease/clostridium difficile infection/medicare

Endnote ID


Alternate JournalPLoS ONE
Citation Key7763
PubMed ID22848714
PubMed Central IDPMC3407081
Grant List5U19AI090871-02 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
U01AG009740 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States