|Title||Is working later in life good or bad for health? An investigation of multiple health outcomes.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||Wickrama, K, O'Neal, CW, Kwag, KH, Lee, TK|
|Journal||J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci|
|Date Published||2013 Sep|
|Keywords||Activities of Daily Living, Age Factors, Aged, depression, Educational Status, Employment, Female, Health Status, Humans, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Memory, Short-Term, Middle Aged, Neuropsychological tests, Psychiatric Status Rating Scales, Sex Factors|
OBJECTIVES: To examine the mutual influences between changes in work status and multiple dimensions of health outcomes (immediate memory, physical disability, and depressive symptoms) over later years.
METHODS: We used a subsample of 8,524 older adults who participated in the Health and Retirement Study from 1998 to 2008 and were 62 years or older in 1998 to examine work status and health outcomes after controlling for age and background characteristics.
RESULTS: We present results of cross-lagged auto-regressive models. Work status (level of work) predicted subsequent residual changes in immediate memory over time, whereas immediate memory predicted subsequent residual changes in work status over time, even after controlling for physical disability and depressive symptoms. Similar results were indicated for the associations between work status and physical disability and depressive symptoms over time.
DISCUSSION: Consistent with social causation and social selection traditions, the findings support bi-directional associations among changes in work status (the level of work), immediate memory, physical disability, and depressive symptoms in later years. Practical implications are discussed.
|User Guide Notes|
|Endnote Keywords|| |
Medical Sciences--Psychiatry And Neurology/Employment/Older people/Personal health/Mental depression/Gerontology/Disability/Disability/Memory
|Endnote ID|| |
|Alternate Journal||J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci|
|PubMed Central ID||PMC3744046|
|Grant List||U01AG009740 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States|