What do parents have to do with my cognitive reserve? Life course perspectives on twelve-year cognitive decline.

TitleWhat do parents have to do with my cognitive reserve? Life course perspectives on twelve-year cognitive decline.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsGonzález, HM, Tarraf, W, Bowen, ME, Johnson-Jennings, MD, Fisher, GG
JournalNeuroepidemiology
Volume41
Issue2
Pagination101-9
Date Published2013
ISSN Number1423-0208
KeywordsAged, Aged, 80 and over, Cognition Disorders, Cognitive Reserve, Cohort Studies, Female, Humans, Longevity, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Parents, Prospective Studies, Socioeconomic factors, United States
Abstract

<p><b>BACKGROUND/AIMS: </b>To examine the cognitive reserve hypothesis by comparing the contribution of early childhood and life course factors related to cognitive functioning in a nationally representative sample of older Americans.</p><p><b>METHODS: </b>We examined a prospective, national probability cohort study (Health and Retirement Study; 1998-2010) of older adults (n=8,833) in the contiguous 48 United States. The main cognitive functioning outcome was a 35-point composite of memory (recall), mental status, and working memory tests. The main predictors were childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and health, and individual-level adult achievement and health.</p><p><b>RESULTS: </b>Individual-level achievement indicators (i.e., education, income, and wealth) were positively and significantly associated with baseline cognitive function, while adult health was negatively associated with cognitive function. Controlling for individual-level adult achievement and other model covariates, childhood health presented a relatively small negative, but statistically significant association with initial cognitive function. Neither individual achievement nor childhood SEP was statistically linked to decline over time.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS: </b>Cognitive reserve purportedly acquired through learning and mental stimulation across the life course was associated with higher initial global cognitive functioning over the 12-year period in this nationally representative study of older Americans. We found little supporting evidence that childhood economic conditions were negatively associated with cognitive function and change, particularly when individual-level achievement is considered.</p>

Notes

Times Cited: 0

URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23860477
DOI10.1159/000350723
User Guide Notes

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23860477?dopt=Abstract

Endnote Keywords

Cognitive reserve/Older adults/Life course/Development/CHILDHOOD/Socioeconomic Status

Endnote ID

69140

Alternate JournalNeuroepidemiology
Citation Key7840
PubMed ID23860477
PubMed Central IDPMC3811933
Grant ListR01 MH084994 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
AG007137 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R37 AG007137 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
U01 AG009740 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
MH 84994 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
AG 027010 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R01 AG007137 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
HC 65233 / HC / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65233 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01 AG027010 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
AG009740 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
K08 MH067726 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
MH 67726 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States