|Title||What do parents have to do with my cognitive reserve? Life course perspectives on twelve-year cognitive decline.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||González, HM, Tarraf, W, Bowen, ME, Johnson-Jennings, MD, Fisher, GG|
|Keywords||Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Cognition Disorders, Cognitive Reserve, Cohort Studies, Female, Humans, Longevity, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Parents, Prospective Studies, Socioeconomic factors, United States|
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To examine the cognitive reserve hypothesis by comparing the contribution of early childhood and life course factors related to cognitive functioning in a nationally representative sample of older Americans.
METHODS: We examined a prospective, national probability cohort study (Health and Retirement Study; 1998-2010) of older adults (n=8,833) in the contiguous 48 United States. The main cognitive functioning outcome was a 35-point composite of memory (recall), mental status, and working memory tests. The main predictors were childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and health, and individual-level adult achievement and health.
RESULTS: Individual-level achievement indicators (i.e., education, income, and wealth) were positively and significantly associated with baseline cognitive function, while adult health was negatively associated with cognitive function. Controlling for individual-level adult achievement and other model covariates, childhood health presented a relatively small negative, but statistically significant association with initial cognitive function. Neither individual achievement nor childhood SEP was statistically linked to decline over time.
CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive reserve purportedly acquired through learning and mental stimulation across the life course was associated with higher initial global cognitive functioning over the 12-year period in this nationally representative study of older Americans. We found little supporting evidence that childhood economic conditions were negatively associated with cognitive function and change, particularly when individual-level achievement is considered.
|User Guide Notes|
|Endnote Keywords|| |
Cognitive reserve/Older adults/Life course/Development/CHILDHOOD/Socioeconomic Status
|Endnote ID|| |
|PubMed Central ID||PMC3811933|
|Grant List||R01 MH084994 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States |
U01 AG009740 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
MH 84994 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
HC 65233 / HC / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
N01HC65233 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
R01 AG027010 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
AG009740 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
AG007137 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R37 AG007137 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
AG 027010 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R01 AG007137 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
K08 MH067726 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
MH 67726 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States