The burden of health care costs for patients with dementia in the last 5 years of life.

TitleThe burden of health care costs for patients with dementia in the last 5 years of life.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsKelley, AS, McGarry, K, Gorges, RJ, Skinner, JS
JournalAnn Intern Med
Volume163
Issue10
Pagination729-36
Date Published2015 Nov 17
ISSN Number1539-3704
KeywordsAged, Aged, 80 and over, Cost of Illness, Dementia, Female, Health Expenditures, Humans, Insurance, Health, Male, Medicaid, Medicare, Retrospective Studies, Socioeconomic factors, Terminal Care, United States
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Common diseases, particularly dementia, have large social costs for the U.S. population. However, less is known about the end-of-life costs of specific diseases and the associated financial risk for individual households.

OBJECTIVE: To examine social costs and financial risks faced by Medicare beneficiaries 5 years before death.

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort.

SETTING: The HRS (Health and Retirement Study).

PARTICIPANTS: Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries, aged 70 years or older, who died between 2005 and 2010 (n = 1702), stratified into 4 groups: persons with a high probability of dementia or those who died because of heart disease, cancer, or other causes.

MEASUREMENTS: Total social costs and their components, including Medicare, Medicaid, private insurance, out-of-pocket spending, and informal care, measured over the last 5 years of life; and out-of-pocket spending as a proportion of household wealth.

RESULTS: Average total cost per decedent with dementia ($287 038) was significantly greater than that of those who died of heart disease ($175 136), cancer ($173 383), or other causes ($197 286) (P < 0.001). Although Medicare expenditures were similar across groups, average out-of-pocket spending for patients with dementia ($61 522) was 81% higher than that for patients without dementia ($34 068); a similar pattern held for informal care. Out-of-pocket spending for the dementia group (median, $36 919) represented 32% of wealth measured 5 years before death compared with 11% for the nondementia group (P < 0.001). This proportion was greater for black persons (84%), persons with less than a high school education (48%), and unmarried or widowed women (58%).

LIMITATION: Imputed Medicaid, private insurance, and informal care costs.

CONCLUSION: Health care expenditures among persons with dementia were substantially larger than those for other diseases, and many of the expenses were uncovered (uninsured). This places a large financial burden on families, and these burdens are particularly pronounced among the demographic groups that are least prepared for financial risk.

PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institute on Aging.

DOI10.7326/M15-0381
User Guide Notes

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26502320?dopt=Abstract

Endnote Keywords

Care and treatment/Public Policy/Financial risk/Dementia/Medicare/Palliative care/Health care expenditures

Endnote ID

999999

Alternate JournalAnn. Intern. Med.
Citation Key8242
PubMed ID26502320
PubMed Central IDPMC4809412
Grant ListK23-AG040774 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
K23 AG040774 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
U01 AG009740 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
U01-AG046830 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P01 AG019783 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P01-AG19783 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
U01 AG046830 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States