Genetic evidence for natural selection in humans in the contemporary United States.

TitleGenetic evidence for natural selection in humans in the contemporary United States.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsBeauchamp, JP
JournalProc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Date Published2016 07 12
ISSN Number1091-6490
KeywordsAged, Blood Glucose, Body Height, Body Mass Index, Cholesterol, Educational Status, Female, Humans, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Menarche, Middle Aged, Models, Genetic, Phenotype, Schizophrenia, Selection, Genetic

Recent findings from molecular genetics now make it possible to test directly for natural selection by analyzing whether genetic variants associated with various phenotypes have been under selection. I leverage these findings to construct polygenic scores that use individuals' genotypes to predict their body mass index, educational attainment (EA), glucose concentration, height, schizophrenia, total cholesterol, and (in females) age at menarche. I then examine associations between these scores and fitness to test whether natural selection has been occurring. My study sample includes individuals of European ancestry born between 1931 and 1953 who participated in the Health and Retirement Study, a representative study of the US population. My results imply that natural selection has been slowly favoring lower EA in both females and males, and are suggestive that natural selection may have favored a higher age at menarche in females. For EA, my estimates imply a rate of selection of about -1.5 mo of education per generation (which pales in comparison with the increases in EA observed in contemporary times). Although they cannot be projected over more than one generation, my results provide additional evidence that humans are still evolving-albeit slowly, especially compared with the rapid changes that have occurred over the past few generations due to cultural and environmental factors.

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Alternate JournalProc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Citation Key8513
PubMed ID27402742
PubMed Central IDPMC4948342