Genetic variation associated with differential educational attainment in adults has anticipated associations with school performance in children.

TitleGenetic variation associated with differential educational attainment in adults has anticipated associations with school performance in children.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsWard, ME, McMahon, G, St Pourcain, B, Rietveld, CA, Benjamin, DJ, Koellinger, PD, Cesarini, D, Timpson, NJ
Secondary AuthorsLi, Y
Corporate AuthorsThe Social Science Genetic Association Consortium
JournalPLoS One
Date Published2014
ISSN Number1932-6203
KeywordsAdolescent, Adult, Child, Child, Preschool, Educational Status, Female, Genetic Association Studies, Genome-Wide Association Study, Humans, Intelligence, Intelligence Tests, Learning, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Mathematics, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide

Genome-wide association study results have yielded evidence for the association of common genetic variants with crude measures of completed educational attainment in adults. Whilst informative, these results do not inform as to the mechanism of these effects or their presence at earlier ages and where educational performance is more routinely and more precisely assessed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms exhibiting genome-wide significant associations with adult educational attainment were combined to derive an unweighted allele score in 5,979 and 6,145 young participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children with key stage 3 national curriculum test results (SATS results) available at age 13 to 14 years in English and mathematics respectively. Standardised (z-scored) results for English and mathematics showed an expected relationship with sex, with girls exhibiting an advantage over boys in English (0.433 SD (95%CI 0.395, 0.470), p<10(-10)) with more similar results (though in the opposite direction) in mathematics (0.042 SD (95%CI 0.004, 0.080), p = 0.030). Each additional adult educational attainment increasing allele was associated with 0.041 SD (95%CI 0.020, 0.063), p = 1.79×10(-04) and 0.028 SD (95%CI 0.007, 0.050), p = 0.01 increases in standardised SATS score for English and mathematics respectively. Educational attainment is a complex multifactorial behavioural trait which has not had heritable contributions to it fully characterised. We were able to apply the results from a large study of adult educational attainment to a study of child exam performance marking events in the process of learning rather than realised adult end product. Our results support evidence for common, small genetic contributions to educational attainment, but also emphasise the likely lifecourse nature of this genetic effect. Results here also, by an alternative route, suggest that existing methods for child examination are able to recognise early life variation likely to be related to ultimate educational attainment.

User Guide Notes

Short TitlePLoS ONE
Alternate JournalPLoS ONE
Citation Key8580
PubMed ID25032841
PubMed Central IDPMC4102483
Grant List092731 / / Wellcome Trust / United Kingdom
MC_UU_12013/3 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
102215 / / Wellcome Trust / United Kingdom
099873/Z/12/Z / / Wellcome Trust / United Kingdom
MC_PC_15018 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
MC_UU_12013/1 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
MC_UU_12013/4 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom